Chung-k'ang's Short Day

Did the sun and moon move 180° to Scorpius? Then this was not a solar eclipse?

Reference to the Shoo, Pt III. Books of Hea, Bk IV. paragraph 4 we find this sentence: 'On the first day of the last month of autumn the sun and moon did not meet harmoniously in Fang'. Upon which there was beating of drums, and a general commotion such as the Chinese usually make on the occasion of an eclipse of the sun. It is evident, from the quotation of the passage in the Tso-chuen, that an eclipse of the sun is meant, and also that the record existed in some form or other in the time of Tso K'ewming. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the genuiness of this part of the Shoo is open to to great suspicion, and in particular, that the phrase





lit, "The heavenly bodies were not harmonious in the chamber," looks more like a modern form of speech, than a primitive way of denoting an eclipse of the sun. It occurs no where else; and although no other eclipse is mentioned in the Shoo, in the other classical writings eclipses of the sun are of common occurance, and are uniformly denoted by "the sun was eaten." This seems more likely to be the older phrase. And again, with regard to the character Fang, it is evidently not taken it the Tso-ch'uen for the constellation that now goes by that name, but as equivalent to Shay, any division or mansion of the zodiac. This interpretation seems also to be favored by several later writers. The ancient name of the constellation was Ho or Ta-ho, ie Scorpio, and it is only called Fang in the Book of Rites.
Astronomy of the Ancient Chinese, p.101, The Chinese Classics.

More specifically Fang probably meant Lupus right below Scorpius.

Notes:

The sun might have moved 180° from Taurus to Scorpius. Autumn began August 25, 45 days before the autumn equinox or at the autumn equinox October 9. Then the eclipse of Chung-k'ang be in year 30th of cycle 2127 BC be in the fifth day of the nineth lunar month in his fifth year. The "fifth" then must refer to both the day of the lunar month and the year. Thus this is a sun miracle not an eclipse on lunar day 5, day 47 of cycle, Sunday, October 8, 2127 BC. Thus the sun and moon did not meet together when they both returned 180° to Fang on the fall equinox. Thus this began the last month of autumn. Thus the 40 years from Yu's first year in 2167 BC to Chung-k'ang's fifth year 2127 BC. On Joseph/Yao's long day probably March 31 2357 BC the sun moved from Taurus to Scorpius in Spring not Autumn.

See ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE PRINCIPLE ERAS IN THE SHOO He and Ho, most likely their descendents of the He and Ho of Yao, were punished when Chung-k'ang became emperor.

This eclipse was placed in Chung-k'ang's first year 2158 BC by Sze-ma Kwang - the event that gave him ascension to the throne, or in his fifth year, in the common chronology, according to the Bamboo Books, on the first day of the ninth month (counting from January).

No solar eclipse was possible for this period from China. Then this may have been a sun miracle and not an eclipse. If we take Fang for Scorpius: The new moon in China in 2127 BC was October 3, the day 47 was October 8, 2127 BC.

The days of 60 consistatly work for lunar and solar eclipses as early as 1352 BC: "After seven days, at the time from jiwei (day 56) to gengshen (day 57), the moon was eclipsed." was wrongly given the date August 14, 1166 BC. August 14 was day 57. Between day 56 and day 57 was the eclipse. Thus for this to be the correct eclipse this should read between day 57 and day 58 the moon was eclipsed.

August 12, 1269 BC was on day 54 with .75 of a day so could be day 55. Xueshun Liu emailed me that it was a possibility because the night began with day 56. This eclipse may not have been visible from Anyang according to NASA's Lunar Eclipse Canon. Neither was this day the right day.

The lunar eclipse on August 29, 1352 BC was on day 56. This meets all requirements because between day 56 and day 57 was the lunar eclipse. So the night of August 29 day 56 was the eclipse then sunrise on day 57. This agrees with the corrected reigns of the Chinese emperors.

There was also a sun miracle on the first of autumn day 57 year 50 October 18, 2607 BC (some copies read year 57) - likewise this is day 57 on the last month of Autumn.

From day 5 of cycle 60 January 7, 1500 BC we can calculate the 57th day: 2607 BC - 1500 BC = 1107 years. 1107 X 365.25 = 404331.75; subract the .75, then divide by 60 = 6738.85. Multiply by the remainder .85 X 60 = 51. Negative 51 = (January 2) + 29, + 28 + 31 + 30 + 31 + 30 + 31 + 31 + 30 + 17 = 237, - 180 = day 57 October 18, 2607 BC.

Huangdi was China's first recorded emperor. It was said he started counting the years in cycles of 60. Some suggested this began in his 60th year, thus with 2636 BC. Yes, I agree he began his 60 year cycle in 2636 BC, but in his 20th year. In Huangdi's 20th year: "When he was sitting in a boat in the Yuen-hoo, above its junction with the Lo, there came together phoenixes, male and female."
The Chinese Classics III, The Annals of the Bamboo Books, Part 1.

The moon passed the sun on day one of cycle 60 in year 1 of cycle 60, January 26, 2636 BC. Thus the sun and moon were together as were the sun phoenix and the moon phoenix. Thus the cycle 60 year calendar and the cycle 60 day calendar started January 26, 2636 BC on the sun miracle that day.

The sun passed through Scorpius from September 25 to November 5, 2200 BC in earth's normal orbit. That the sun and moon did not meat harmoniously in Libra/Scorpius, Fang, may have meant the sun and moon moved 180° in the fifth lunar day - so were five days apart.

In Shun's 14th year, from 2220 BC is 2207 BC, 2200 years before the birth of Jesus: "A violent wind tore up houses..When the day declined there came a fine and glorious light; and a yellow dragon issued and came to the altar, bearing a scheme on his back, 32 cubits long and 9 cubits broad, in lines red and green intermingled, the words of which were that he should resign in favour of Yu."
The Chinese Classics, p 115

The following event, perhaps the same event, is also attributed to to Yu (Common Chronology when Yu became emperor in Shun's 14th year. Shun shared the throne with Yao from 2246 BC to 2220 BC when Shun became emperor. Then Yu shared the throne with Shun from 2220 BC to 2167 BC when Yu became emperor. Yu was emperor from 2167 BC to 2157 BC. In Shun's 14th, year which may have counted from any of these dates, there was a sun miracle and a sign he should abdicate the throne to Yu, must be a sun miracle rather than a natural five planet conjunction or eclipse:

"the three Miao tribes were in great disorder and Heaven decreed their destruction. The sun came out at night and for three days it rained blood. A dragon appeared in the ancestral temple and dogs howled in the market place. Ice formed in summertime, the earth split open until springs gushed forth, the [cereal crops] grew differently, and the people were filled with a great terror. Kao Yang gave the command in the Dark Palace, and Yu grasped the jade staff of authority and set out to subdue the ruler of the Miao. Amidst the din of thunder and lightning, a spirit with the face of a man and the body of a bird came bearing a jade baton to wait upon Yu. The general of the Miao was felled by an arrow."
Adapted from B. Watson, trans., Basic writings of Mo Tzu, Hsün Tzu, and Han Fei Tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967), Mo Tzu at sect.19, with assistance from E. W. Maeder.

That "the sun came out at night" must mean the sun moved 180° east or west to shorten the night considerably. "The climatic events and the jade baton are interpreted as a five planet conjunction in the lodge of Shi (Aquarius)."
Douglas J. Keenan

Thus this may be another example of a short day.

If the sun moved 180° on the equinox earth would not have to shift to keep in the same season. Yao's long day was likely March 31, 2316 BC (not Autumn) whereupon Yao appointed He and Ho to determine the seasons. However, the sun moving 180° March 31, 2316 BC would move from Taurus to Scorpius, then back one year later. And March 27, 2309 BC the full moon would move from Taurus to Scorpius and the sun from Taurus to Scorpius again. Years later He and Ho, or more likely the descendents of He and Ho, were executed for not predicting the sun and moon moving 180° on or near the new moon. This sudden sunset would explain the beating on drums typical of a solar eclipse. The emperor Kuh, who appointed T'ang, Yao, to be his successor, "made blind men beat drums, strike bells and sounding stones, at which the phoenixes flapped their wings,and gambolled."
Annals of the Bamboo Books p.111

Isaac died in 2327 BC the year Kuh became emperor and perhaps there was a sun miracle then to mark Isaac's death whereupon Kuh became emperor. The flaming Phoenix may represent drought and forest fire as in the Phaethon legend, possibly from at least some of these events. On Yao's long day and on this short day arrows were shot into the sky. The decendents of Yao's astronomers He and Ho are probably decribed in the sun miracle they failed to predict in 2127 BC: "Now here are He and Ho. They have entirely subverted their virtue, and are sunk and lost in wine. They have violated the duties of their office, and left their posts. They have been the first to allow the regulators of heaven to get into disorder, putting far from them their proper business. On the first day of the last month of autumn, the sun and moon did not meet harmoniously in Fang. The blind musicians beat their drums; the inferior officers and common people bustled and ran about." (Notes: The regulators are the seasons of the year, the sun, the moon, the stars, and the calculations of the calendar.) According to Yao's Canon in the reverse orbit rather Aquarius should be overhead at dusk at the spring equinox and Leo overhead at the fall equinox.

"But the vernal mansions go to the west and the autumnal ones to the east, reversing the previous directions of these two seasons, and in opposition to the prevailing notion of the Chinese that the spring belongs to the east, etc."
The Chinese Classics III p.94

A reverse orbit is the only way that is possible. He and Ho or their descendents had allowed the months and seasons to get into confusion. They had correctly determined the signs of the seasons following Yao's rise to power March 31, 2316 BC but could not have known the God of the Bible or the seven years of plenty promised to Egypt. Thus confusion on the day the sun moved again March 29, 2309 BC. And decided confusion on this more recent sun miracle October 8, 2127 BC. Emperor Yao was previously named T'ang. He was named Yao, Son of Heaven, when he hired Yi to shoot the ten suns and became emperor. Yao was "the prince of T'aou and T'ang, who possessed the country of K'e...Yao is not yet the emperor ruling over 10,000 States." Then the sun moving to Scorpius probably was a separate sun miracle about 2127 BC, and earth either flowed into a reverse orbit or out of one. Chinese Classics III, Credibility of the Shoo, p.51 "In his 5th year, in the autumn, in the 9th month, on the day kang-seuh [57th of cycle], which was the first day (fifth day) of the month, there was an eclipse of the sun, when he ordered the prince of Yin to lead the imperial forces to punish He and Ho."
p.119

Phaethon: "They nearly wrecked the chariot against the Scorpion; they brought up short and almost ran into the Crab." The sun must have moved 180° to the Crab in October/November then 180° back to Scorpius October/November 2200 BC. Seneca's Thyestes: "and in her fall Libra's just balances will force fierce Scorpion down." The second miracle must happen exactly the same time of year or exactly 6 months later so earth can twist back and keep in the same season. 'In the Tso-chuen: "in the 12th month Scorpio was still visible in the west" is not intelligible, for the sun must have passed through Scorpio in October, and the 12th month was certainly not our September.' Scorpius would still be visible in November, the 12th month, or January the 12th month, in a reverse orbit such as this.

If the sun moved from Taurus to Scorpius in April then the 12th month would be when the sun was in Virgo when Scorpius would appear in the west just after sunset. Likewise if the sun moved 180° at almost any time likely Scorpius would be still visible in September in a reverse orbit. The sun would progress through the zodiac in reverse because earth would be in a reverse orbit.

Feng-huang, Phoenix, is a bird that symbolizes the union of yin and yang, a sign of both peace and disharmony.
Before Yao, in earliest times: "In Hwang-te's 50th year, in autumn, in the 7th month, on the day Kang-shin [57th of cycle], phoenixes, male and female arrived." Autumn began 45 days after the summer solstice July 13, 2607 BC, thus August 27. Then this sun miracle must have been just after the new moon October 1, 2607 BC. This October 18, 2307 BC was the 17th day of the lunar month, just as September 13, 7 BC was on Jesus' birth.

"In the first month of spring, on the 6th day, the five planets had a conjunction in Fang." - King Wan's dream from China. Was called a dream because it occurred after sunset. There was a planetary conjuction recorded in Fang in 1131 BC when there should not be a conjunction according to planetary simulations. Likewise at the sun miracle January 2247 BC when Shun became emperor "A brilliant star came out in Fang". "In the sixth lunar month of the first year of the Yuanguang reign period - June 22 - July 21, 134 BC - "A guest star was seen at Fang".

Emperor Chuen-heuh, 2479 BC, "fixed the commencement of the year in February" Chinese Classics III, p.101 In his 13th year, the year Isaac was 38 and the age of Christ when he was crucified. Jesus was born perhaps September 13, 7 BC and crucified 38 and a half years later, April 3, 33 AD. Thus when Abraham went to offer up Isaac, there may have been sun miracles like there were at Christ's crucifixion and resurrection. Emperor Yao commenced the beginning of the year in December, the month before the winter solstice January 10, 2300 BC, like it had been from Hwang-te (Huang di) from 2657 BC. 50 years after Hwang-te's sun miracle in his 50th year, there was a sun miracle in Huangdi's 100th year, when Abraham was 50, 2557 BC: "in his 100th year the earth was rent." and perhaps the sun moved 180° and either earth flowed into or out of a reverse orbit.

Perhaps at the same time: "When Che ascended the throne there was the auspicious omen of phoenixes."
Chinese Classics, vol.3, p.109

If the sun moved 180° and earth flowed out of or into a reverse orbit an earthquake at the same time would be expected and is a common observation associated with sun miracles. And sun miracles often precede a change in emperors.

See Joshua's Long Day

Yang originally meant sunshine and Yin darkness or shadow. The Chinese recorded male and female phoenixes appearing, likewise representing this Yin and Yang from at least 2900 BC in earliest Chinese history. It is sometimes Yang, it is sometimes Yin, reverse and reverse, arrange sequentially or arrange in reverse. The sun's messenger and herald of peace that could always be seen flying high in the sky when a new Emperor ascended the throne. Feng-huang, Phoenix, is a bird that symbolizes the union of yin and yang, a sign of both peace and disharmony. When two dragons are placed together but turned away, they symbolize eternity via the famous Yin-Yang.





Around 2852 BC, (3322 BC by James Legge) the Emperor Fu Hsi wrote of seeing a k'i-lin. He saw markings on the coat of the animal, and perceived those symbols as a written language, thus giving credit to the k'i-lin for the establishment of the written Chinese language." "The unicorn resembles a large stag, but has the body of a musk deer, the tail of an ox, the forehead of a wolf, and the hooves of a horse. It has a fleshly tipped horn extending from its forehead."
Things Chinese

These Eight Trigrams were used by emperor Fu Hsi around 2850 BC as the elements of the Chinese language and surround the Yin Yang:





Solid lines on the hexagrams represent Yang (male or sun) and the broken lines Yin. (Female or moon). The Eight Trigrams were doubled into 64 hexagrams by King Wen in 1223 BC when he was prisoner. King Wan also recorded the sun returning a year after the fall of Jericho and six months after Joshua's long day, in his first year as king from February 15, 1240 BC.

However, the total solar eclipse on October 22, 2137 BC visible in China is the date given by Nasa.

This solar eclipse fixes the reign of Chung-Kang correctly from 2141 BC, his fifth year 2137 BC.

From Yu in 2168 BC (2200 years to Jesus' crucifixion in 33 AD) - 8 years, K'e - 14 years, T'ae K'ang - 4 years, Chung-Kang - 5 years = 2137 BC!

The solar eclipse on the new moon was on day 7 of cycle 60. Thus, the day may be 7 instead of 47. The day be geng wu = 7, instead of geng xu = 47.

If 2137 BC = Chung-Kang's 5th year, his first year would be 2141 BC. Joshua conquered Palestine in 1241 BC 900 years later.

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