Some reade, in the booke of the righteous, meaning Moses. The Chalde text readeth in the booke of the Law: but it is like that it was a booke thus named which is now lost.
Joshua 10:12 "Then spake Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, sun stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, moon upon Ajalon.
13 And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.
14 And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto the voice of a man: for the Lord fought for Israel."
2 Samuel 1:17 "And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son:
18 (Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher.)"
In the Greek Septuagint the words in Joshua 10:13 "Is not this written in the book of Jasher?" do not appear.
However in the Greek Septuagint the words "behold, it is written in the book of the Right" (of Jasher) in the book of Jasher, does appear:
2 Samuel 1:17 "Ad David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and Jonathan his son.
1:18 And he gave orders to teach it the sons of Juda: behold, it is written in the book of the Right."
Then it follows that Joshua must have been written by the time of David.
1 Chronicles 2:18 "And Caleb the son of Hezron begat children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth: her sons are these: Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon."
Caleb was 80 at Joshua's long day and his son Jesher would be there to witness the sun standing still in the battle. Thus perhaps Jesher wrote the book of Jasher - the names are the same in Hebrew except for a silent letter before Jasher.
Jasher and the following Song of Deborah and Habakkuk were poetical, national songs, in honor of renowned and eminently pious heroes. However, Joshua 10:12-14 cannot be said to be poetical but statements of fact.
Jasher 88:63 "And when they were smiting, the day was declining toward evening, and Joshua said in the sight of all the people "Sun stand you still upon Gibeon, and you Moon in the valley of Ajalon until the nation will have avenged itself upon its enemies"
88:64 "And the Lord harkened to the voice of Joshua, and the sun stood still in the midst of the heavens, and it stood still six and thirty moments, and the moon also stood still and hastened not to go down a whole day."
36 moments may be 36 hours. The book of Jasher first appeared in 1552 AD. Still this was before Galileo discovered earth orbits the sun in 1610 AD. The sun revolving aroung the earth for 36 hours to stand still in the sky would equal the sun back on the other side of the earth and earth could flow out of the reverse orbit of the sun.
The total of long days must equal 48 hours. So, if the sun stood still August 24, 1241 BC for 36 hours, and then stood still for 12 hours February 16, 1240 BC, the reverse sped up orbit of 48 hours would be countered by long days.
Nevertheless, there must be short days the sudden sunrise February 17, 1241 BC and August 25, 1241 BC. The half orbit point at August 24, 1241 BC the sun must be travelling west to east, pause in the middle of the sky for 24 hours, and continue west to east to set in the east. - 12 hours February 17, 1241 BC, + 36 hours sun travelling west to east August 24, 1241 BC, + 24 hours the sun standing still at noon, August 24, 1241 BC, - 12 hours the sun suddenly rise in the east August 25, 1241 BC and + 12 hours the sun stand still at noon February 16, 1240 BC and earth flow out of the reverse orbit of the sun. So the sun would stand still in the sky for Joshua for 24 hours, but the sun travelling west to east that day would account for 36 hours.
Or there may have been two or three years of reverse orbit. The crossing of the river Jordan, Sunday, February 4, 1241 BC, Joshua's long day, August 10, 1241 BC, the battle of Merom and Judges 4,5 February 4, 1240 BC, and one year later king Wan's dream, February 5, 1239 BC - the sun move back and earth flow out of the reverse orbit of the sun.
If Joshua's long day was 36 hours, the long days had to add up to 48 hours that year. - 12 + 36 - 12 + 12 = 24 not 48 hours. The earliest this book was written, as part of the Midrash, should be 900 AD. The claim the book was taken from the Temple in 70 AD is not supported.
Judges 5:1 "Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, saying,
2 Praise ye the LORD for the avenging of Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves.
3 Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes; I, even I, will sing unto the LORD; I will sing praise to the LORD God of Israel.
4 LORD, when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water.
5 The mountains melted from before the LORD, even that Sinai from before the LORD God of Israel.
6 In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the highways were unoccupied, and the travellers walked through byways.
7 The inhabitants of the villages ceased, they ceased in Israel, until that I Deborah arose, that I arose a mother in Israel.
8 They chose new gods; then was war in the gates: was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in Israel?
9 My heart is toward the governors of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people. Bless yethe LORD.
10 Speak, ye that ride on white asses, ye that sit in judgment, and walk by the way.
11 They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the LORD, even the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of his villages in Israel: then shall the people of the LORD go down to the gates.
12 Awake, awake, Deborah: awake, awake, utter a song: arise, Barak, and lead thy captivity captive, thou son of Abinoam.
13 Then he made him that remaineth have dominion over the nobles among the people: the LORD made me have dominion over the mighty.
14 Out of Ephraim was there a root of them against Amalek; after thee, Benjamin, among thy people; out of Machir came down governors, and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer.
15 And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah; even Issachar, and also Barak: he was sent on foot into the valley. For the divisions of Reuben there were great thoughts of heart.
16 Why abodest thou among the sheepfolds, to hear the bleatings of the flocks? For the divisions of Reuben there were great searchings of heart.
17 Gilead abode beyond Jordan: and why did Dan remain in ships? Asher continued on the sea shore, and abode in his breaches.
18 Zebulun and Naphtali were a people that jeoparded their lives unto the death in the high places of the field.
19 The kings came and fought, then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of money.
20 They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera.
21 The river of Kishon swept them away, that ancient river, the river Kishon. O my soul, thou hast trodden down strength.
22 Then were the horsehoofs broken by the means of the pransings, the pransings of their mighty ones.
23 Curse ye Meroz, said the angel of the LORD, curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the LORD, to the help of the LORD against the mighty.
24 Blessed above women shall Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite be, blessed shall she be above women in the tent.
25 He asked water, and she gave him milk; she brought forth butter in a lordly dish.
26 She put her hand to the nail, and her right hand to the workmen's hammer; and with the hammer she smote Sisera, she smote off his head, when she had pierced and stricken through his temples.
27 At her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bowed, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down dead.
28 The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried through the lattice, Why is his chariot so long in coming? why tarry the wheels of his chariots?
29 Her wise ladies answered her, yea, she returned answer to herself,
30 Have they not sped? have they not divided the prey; to every man a damsel or two; to Sisera a prey of divers colours, a prey of divers colours of needlework, of divers colours of needlework on both sides, meet for the necks of them that take the spoil?
31 So let all thine enemies perish, O LORD: but let them that love him be as the sun when he goeth forth in his might. And the land had rest forty years."
Habakkuk 3:10 "The mountains saw thee and they trembled: the overflowing of water passed by: the deep uttered his voice, and lifted up his hands on high.
3:11 The sun and moon stood still in their habitation: at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear."
This poem represents Joshua's long day and may have also come from the book of Jasher. Joshua's spear was glittering with blood in the high noon day sun. This poem by Deborah in Judges 5 may represent Joshua's long day at the same time and may have come from the book of Jasher, poems of praise.
Perhaps the Midianites planned to strike both Gideon and Deborah/Barak the same day as the Amorites Gibeon when Joshua ascended to fight on Joshua's long day. Heber, Moses' father inlaw was involved. Heber is the same in Hebrew as Abel. Then this sun miracle in Judges 5:31 may be even earlier than Joshua's conquest. Nevertheless, the battle against the Midianites appears one, Judges, 4,5,6,7,8 - August 24, 1241 BC.
Note the earth also trembled in Habakkuk's writing of Joshua's long day. Earthquakes are often associated with Chinese sun miracles and would be expected when the sun moved around the earth. Habakkuk 3:7 "I saw the tents of Cushun in affliction: and the curtains of Midian did tremble." Habakkuk 3:10 and Judges 5:4a and Exodus 15:15 also speaks of earth trembling and is written in poetical praise, perhaps - it is a possibility - a part of the book of Jasher. Habakkuk 3:10b "the overflowing of water passed by" and Joshua 10:11. Habakkuk 3:9 "awakened your bow" may refer to Judges 5:12 "Awake, awake, Deborah:" Note the last verse, in
Judges 5:31 - "but let them that love him be as the sun when he goeth forth in his might."
- literally means the sun moved around the earth the 360° it moved on Joshua's long day. Perhaps the Israelites perceived the sun must move at terrific speed around the earth to also rise in the west while earth rotated to move from Aquarius to Virgo giving them time to get complete victory 188 days after Joshua's battle of Jericho, for "none of them was left". James Legge writes: "It obliges us to conclude, that not only were the characters for years introduced in the Annals after their emergence from the tomb, but that the lengths of the reigns also were altered, so that the value of the chronicle, as a guide in chronology, is altogther taken away." "The date in the Bamboo Books places it too late; that in the common chronology cannot be far from the truth." However, a lunar eclipse dated to king Wan's 35th year, day 13 of 60, September 23, 1205 BC, puts king Wan's Dream and battle February 15. 1240 BC when the sun must return and Joshua fight the Canaanites in Joshua 11.
In the battle against Sisera; Debra and Bark would see the sun rise in the west about three hours after it has set in the west. Thus Debra's urging to Barak to awake and the surprise attack on Sisera. The sun moved 180° east and the moon moved 180° east. If at the beginning of the second watch, 11PM Israel time, Israel was turning into earth's path and may have seen meteor showers, as the Chinese sometimes record with a sun miracle, "stars fell like rain". Thus we normally see more meteor showers after 12 AM. Thus Judges 5:20 "They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera." and 5:31 "So let all thine enemies perish, O LORD: but let them that love him be as the sun when he goeth forth in his might."
Joshua 10:42 "And all these kings and their land did Joshua take at one time."
Exodus 23:29 "I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee."
Joshua 17:18b "for thou shalt drive out the Canaanites, though they have iron chariots, and though they be strong."
Judges 4:23 "So God subdued on that day Jabin the king of Canaan before the children of Israel."
Judges 4:24 "And the hand of the children of Israel prospered, and prevailed against Jabin the king of Canaan, until they had destroyed Jabin king of Canaan."
Or Judges 4:24a "And the hand of the children of Israel going went and was hard.."
Perhaps meaning the battle of Merom was soon after and Hazor was then burned.
Joshua 11:5 "And when all these kings were assembled by appointment, they came and pitched together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.
6a And the LORD said unto Joshua, Be not afraid because of them: for to morrow about this time will I deliver them up all slain before Israel"
Psalm 83:4 "They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance.
5 For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee:
6 The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes;
9 Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison:
10 Which perished at Endor: they became as dung for the earth."
Joshua 11 and Judges 4 & 5 appear to be at the same time. However, the appointed time for Joshua 11 may have been later, February 15, 1240 BC.
Deborah said Judges 4:6b "Hath not the LORD God of Israel commanded, saying, Go and draw toward mount Tabor,"
Judges 5:12 "Awake, awake, Deborah: awake, awake, utter a song: arise, Barak, and lead thy captivity captive, thou son of Abinoam."
Judges 4:10 "And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him."
Joshua reproved the other 10 tribes of Israel for not taking possession in Joshua 19. Perhaps the 10,000 troops were the Israelite settlers already in the land before Joshua crossed the River Jordan.
Joshua 11 tells of Joshua burning this Hazor. Joshua 19 tells of these same tribes of the north taking possession of the land months or years after Joshua's conquest. Judah and Ephraim had taken their inheritance first.
Joshua 19:12 "And turned from Sarid eastward toward the sunrising unto the border of Chislothtabor, and then goeth out to Daberath, and goeth up to Japhia,"
Instead of just giving the direction "to the east", these verses point to the sunrising: Numbers 21:11, Numbers 34:15, Deutronomy 4:41, 4:47, Joshua 1:15, 13:5, 19:12, 19:27, 19:34, Judges 20:43. The Chinese represented their zodiac with north pointing to the contellation the sun was in on the winter solstice. Then in a reverse orbit the sun was in the east on the vernal equinox. Because the directions of North East West South were taken from the stars the words "toward the sunrising" must be added. The sun always rose each day in the east and north always pointed the direction of earth's axis. The more things change the more they remain the same.
Judges 5:8b "was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in Israel?"
Perhaps there were just forty thousand Israelites in the land before Joshua came. The Bible reads as if all Israel came out by Moses:
I Samuel 12:6 "And Samuel said unto the people, It is the LORD that advanced Moses and Aaron, and that brought your fathers up out of the land of Egypt.
7 Now therefore stand still, that I may reason with you before the LORD of all the righteous acts of the LORD, which he did to you and to your fathers.
8 When Jacob was come into Egypt, and your fathers cried unto the LORD, then the LORD sent Moses and Aaron, which brought forth your fathers out of Egypt, and made them dwell in this place.
9 And when they forgat the LORD their God, he sold them into the hand of Sisera, captain of the host of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they fought against them.
10 And they cried unto the LORD, and said, We have sinned, because we have forsaken the LORD, and have served Baalim and Ashtaroth: but now deliver us out of the hand of our enemies, and we will serve thee.
11 And the LORD sent Jerubbaal, and Bedan, and Jephthah, and Samuel, and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and ye dwelled safe."
Only four judges are given, Jerubbaal which is Gideon, Bedan which is Barak, Jephthah and Samuel, perhaps because the period of Judges spanned just 100 years. Gideon, Barak and Deborah may depict the same battle on the same day August 24, 1241 BC, the forty years rest to when Eli died, and Samuel became judge perhaps 1170 BC, Jephthah perhaps 1150 BC. Samuel may have written Judges also. There must have been Israelites in the land already when Joshua conquered. Thus the Egyptian Stele of Mernaptah that stated "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not;" in southern Israel. No Israelites left in southern Israel when Joshua came, but perhaps Israelites in nothern Israel where Barak, Deborah and Gideon were. Thus also Merneptah died at the time of the Exodus.
Hebrews 3:16 "For who provoked Him when they had heard? Indeed, did not all those who came out of Egypt led by Moses?"
Judges 4:11 "Now Heber the Kenite, which was of the children of Hobab the father in law of Moses, had severed himself from the Kenites, and pitched his tent unto the plain of Zaanim, which is by Kedesh."
Then the Israelites already in the land would have heard of Moses through, Moses' father in law - one and the same person. The Samaritan Bible suggests the northern tribes were already in Israel when Joshua invaded.
Judges 5:4 "LORD, when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchest out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, and the clouds dropped also water.
5 The mountains melted from before the LORD God of Israel."
Debra did not say when we, she said when thou; when Moses went up the mount of God. Perhaps then Deborah and these Israelites were already in the land at that time. Many "Hapiru" Hebrews migrated to Canaan and established farm settlements during Rameses II reign 1355 - 1290 BC. Before the Exodus at the end of pharaoh Merneptah's reign at the end of March 30, 1281 BC. Merneptah's death about 3.5 = 3 month back from July 1, and 5 days ahead = about April 5, 1281 BC.
Genesis 15:16 "But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full."
May have originally read "in the fortieth generation." the last two characters being dropped in a copy error, 40 X 25 = 1000 years. Thus, as of the fortieth generation in 1307 BC was the promis. 1000 years from the Sojourn into Egypt by Jacob and his sons, March 31, 2307 BC the sojourn into Egypt) the Hebrews may have felt the promise was to their generation and some escaped Egypt to farm in Palestine. Of which generation was Moses born in 1360 BC. He was 80 in 1281 BC. Joshua must have took Hazor soon after Joshua's long day and Hazor logically must have been burned after Debra delivered Israel.
"A monument at Beth-shean tells of the victory of Seti I (1355 BC) over Apiru (Hebrews) at Mount Yarmuta (biblical Jarmuth or Remeth) which was within the tribal area of Isaachar (Joshua 19:21, 21:29). Apiru tribes were to be found throughout the hill regions during the late fourteenth century B.C. (1350 - 1300 BC)"
The Macmillan BIBLE ATLAS, p.42
The earliest mention is from Anatolia from 1900 BC. Because Abraham was born perhaps 2607 BC Hebrews could have spread far and wide by 1900 BC.
Judges 4:3 "And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel."
Judges 3:30 "So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel. And the land had rest fourscore years."
20 years back from Debra and Barak in 1240 BC and 80 years back to Ehud mean Israelites were in the land by 1340 BC. Moses sent the twelve rulers of the twelve tribes into Canaan, Numbers 13:22 "And they ascended by the south, and came unto Hebron..and returned after searching the land forty days". They may have thought the Israelite settlers in the north were too few to mention and the Israelite settlers in the south may have been destroyed by the pharaoh of Exodus Merneptah 1287 BC in his fourth year as depicted on the Merneptah Stela: "Israel is laid waste, his seed is not" The Exodus may have been Friday, March 30, 1281 BC.
Deuternomy 34:1 "And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan,
2 And all of Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea,"
Perhaps some of this land was already settled by an earlier migration. Thus these verses may be speaking in present tense rather than in future tense. Nevertheless, this was fulfilled in Joshua 11.
See Joshua's Long Day
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