Dating the Exodus

The new year began in September in Egypt as a countdown to redemption with the Passover March 30 - the end of the 430th year. The year end in sothis year 430 from the new sothis cycle in 2737 BC was Hebrew lunar day 14, April 1, 2307 BC. So the Exodus was the same day at the end of the 1460 year from 2741 BC, or 1456 years from 2737 BC - Sirius appeared to start the sothis cycle one day earlier from July 17 instead of July 16 = 4 years earlier, sothis cycle 1281 BC. Thus on July 17 1282 BC Sirius must have been visible at 4:15 AM to end the old sothis cycle. 2741 BC - 1460 = 1281 BC. Or 2737 BC - 1456 years = 1281 BC. Likewise Jesus began his ministry in Luke 4 on Rosh Hashanah August 28, 29 AD as a countdown to his crucifixion, resurrection and redemption for all two and a half years later. Then the first day of the Jewish Nation was when Joshua conquered Palestine on Joshua's long day between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, August 24, 1241 BC.

Then the fortieth year was from March 30, 1281 BC to the twelfth lunar month of the 40th year, December 1241 BC.

Pharaoh Merneptah died May 2, 1203 BC according to contemporary sources. However, as seen here, Merneptah died in 1281 BC. Yet the Exodus March 30, 1281 BC to May 2, 1281 BC is 32 days. 14 days is too short a time to travel to Aqaba. 32 days is just long enough for the children of Israel to travel the rough terrain more than 350 miles from Ramesses to Aqaba where they may have crossed the Red Sea. May 2, 1281 would be II Shemu 10. April 2, 1281 BC would be I Shemu 10. Thus April 2, 1281 BC the children of Israel may have crossed the Reed Sea, I Shemu 10.

Below you will see two anchor dates, II Shemu 25, May 14, 1338 BC and IV Peret 12, December 30, 1332 BC. Every 19 years the lunar date will match the fixed Egyptian date. So add 76 years to May 14, 1338 BC and we have the solar eclipse June 14, 1414 BC = II Shemu 25. Likewise add 76 years to December 30, 1332 BC and we have the solar eclipse January 29, 1407 BC = IV Peret 12. Merneptah died a few months short of a full ten year reign beginning in July or June. His death could be in April.

See: Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt. William McMurray (billmcmurray@aol.com)





Here you see the two eclipse paths. Remember there is no year 0, and NASA Fortran counts a year 0. Then all dates are one year further back. You can see the solar eclipse of June 14, 1414 BC is visible at sunset in Egypt. Sunset is when most people would look at the sun. The solar eclipse of January 29, 1407 BC is visible at sunrise in Egypt. This is also when many people would be looking at the sun. Thus the Egyptian chronology must be moved 76 years further back, 4 X 19 years. Then we have some of the most ancient solar eclipse records. These also predate Joshua's long day. Thus eclipse dates before Joshua's long day are where we would expect them to be. This eclipse record for June 14, 1414 BC, II Shemu 25, as calculated here may be the earliest actual eclipse on record. The Five Millenium Canon of Solar Eclipses and Lunar Eclipses projecting to where they should be backward in time are completely correct.







Here you see the eclipse path for the solar eclipse April 11, 1411 BC, instead of March 13, 1335 BC. This is the 24 Peret IV year 5. Notice how the solar eclipse is visible from northern Egypt:





Notice how the 76 years work. There was 66 years for Ramses II and 10 years for Merneptah = the same 76 years. Thus from Merneptah's death estimated in 1205 BC, this works perfectly with 1281 BC 76 years earlier. This is why you will see the date of 1281 BC for Pharaoh Seti I's death in 1281 BC. Therefore the date of 1281 BC is correct for the date of the Exodus. Only the Pharaoh is Merneptah, not Seti I. There is the possibility of descent from pharaoh Akhenaten who declared there no gods, only the sun god. Only I believe in the One Living God, not the one sun god. Many people share this same ancestry with me from those who married out of the Jewish faith. There were several diasporas and many persecutions to cause Jews to marry out of their faith. This and the many children this line produced seems to me to cloud the evidence. Only this is a suggestion on my part. The common ancestor with king Tut is 4,900 years ago for some in the R1b1 Cohen project. Only for me and several others in the R1b1 Cohen group, the common ancestor suggested with King Tut is from about 3,100 years ago. Thus perhaps 3,400 years to King Tut. The common ancestor may be from an Egyptian man marrying a Hebrew woman from the generation when Moses was born because there were no Hebrew men left in that generation to marry. Pharaoh Seti I ordered the Hebrews to kill their new born sons. Only Moses escaped. This would tend to verify the contents of the letter from the King of Scotland to the Pope.

This chronology means the new sothis cycle began the year of the Exodus 1281 BC. This because II Shemu 25 was June 14, 1414 BC. IV Shemu must end July 16. Thus IV Shemu ended June 14 + 5 + 30 + 30 = August 17. 1414 BC. Then back from August 17 to July 16 is 33 days. 33 X 4 = 132 years. 1414 - 132 years = 1282 BC the year of the new sothis cycle. Thus the Exodus was the beginning of the new sothis cycle of 1460 years in Egypt.

Exodus 12:40 "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was from the four hundred and thirty years.
12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt."

From the 430th sothis year with the first year 2737 BC and the 430th year 2307 BC. The end of the 430th year is the end of the Sothis cycle of 1460 years. Thus the Exodus was at the end of the sothis cycle, 2741 BC - 1460 years is 1281 BC. Or rather, 2737 BC - 1456 years = 1281 BC. The end of the year in the 430th of sothis was Friday April 1, 2307 BC. Thus the Exodus the night of Friday, March 30, 1281 BC the self same day.

The Exodus must have been Friday March 30, 1281 BC and the crossing of the Reed Sea three days later. However, the children of Israel may have crossed the Red Sea instead several days later.

The following are Egyptian records. They are based on the end of the sothis cycle to be 1320 BC which is 40 years earlier than the actual end of the sothis cycle 1281 BC. Also, the actual chronology is 76 years earlier than these dates. 76 + 40 / 4 = 29. Thus both the day of the same Egyptian 30 day month is the same and the lunar phase, 29.5 days, of that date is the same. Thus these prove Merneptah was the pharaoh of the Exodus:

See: Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt. William McMurray (billmcmurray@aol.com)

Brand: 3.70 Alabaster Stela of Seti I, Year 1 (Cairo CG 34501), p. 249 (276) Thebes, Karnak Precinct of Amen-Re: "Erected opposite the Mansion of the Prince, at the Place of Appearances of the Incarnation of Re, a rooftop shrine that served as the principle sanctuary of Re in Karnak where the morning form of the sun god appeared."
Year 1, II Akhet 1
If Year 2 instead of 1: New moon, 8 Aug 1289 BC (I Akhet 29)?
The date should be 76 years earlier in 1365 BC. - should be the new moon on II Aket 1. The new moon for II Aket 1 is September 7, 1365 BC.

Brand: 3.128 Boundary Stela, Year 4, p. 319 (346) Near Kurkur Oasis: Carved in sunk relief on a sandstone slab; portrays Seti I bowing before god Khnum: "On this day, now His Majesty he is joyful at establishing the boundaries of Ta-Sety."
Year 4, III Peret 20
Full moon, 26 Jan 1286 BC - should be full moon February 26, 1362 BC.

Brand: 3.109 Rock Stela, Year 6, p. 296 (323) Gebel Silsila East: Commemorates an expedition to quarry sandstone for building projects. Text known only from 19th century copies, current location unknown. Year 6, IV Akhet 1
Full moon, 7 Oct 1285 BC (III Akhet 30) - should be full moon 1361 BC November 7, 1361 BC.

Brand: 3.6 Stela of Ashahebused, Year 8 (No. 249), p. 135 (162) Sinai, Serabit el-Khadim: Large, free standing stela set up on approach to Hathor shrine, made by an official named Ashahebused, who made several expeditions to turquoise mines in the Sinai.
Year 8, I Peret 2
If Year 7 instead of 8: New moon, 9 Nov 1284 BC (I Peret 3)? - should be December 9, 1360 BC.

Kitchen: Revolt in the Deep South, pp. 30-31 Army arrived at Fortress ‘Pacifier of the Two Lands’ to suppress a Nubian revolt in Irem. Year 8, III Peret 13 - No lunar match, as should be expected for military movements. Kitchen: Deserts and Quarries, p. 31 Dug well and built temple at Kanais for gold-miners in the Edfu desert.
Year 9, III Shemu 20
New moon, 25 May 1282 BC - should be June 25 1358 BC

Brand: 3.151 Fragmentary Stela of Seti I, Year 11 (Khartoum 1856), p. 335 (362) Describes some building projects the king initiated for various gods in the temple of Amen at Gebel Barkal in Nubia, and in the temple of the Benben-stone in Heliopolis. (Highest known date of Seti I) Year 11, IV Shemu 12/13
Full moon, 15 Jun 1280 BC (IV Shemu 12) - should be July 15, 1356 BC

Brand and others propose III Shemu 27 (31 May 1279 BC) as the accession date of Ramesses II. However, I believe his accession month is probably I Akhet (July 1279 BC), to fit the Year 34 date below. In either case, this implies that Seti I died early in his 12th regnal year. Kitchen: ‘Gold in those far Hills’, p. 49 Well dug for gold-miners in the Eastern desert at Akuyati in Nubia.
Year 3, I Peret 4
Full moon, 7 Nov 1277 BC (I Peret 3) - should be December 7, 1353 BC

Brand: 4.2.3 Manshiet es-Sadr Stela regarding work on colossal statue, p. 341-2 (368-9) Year 8, II Peret 8 Full moon, 12 Dec 1272 BC (II Peret 9) Kitchen: Tales and Tourism in Ramesside Egypt, pp. 147-8 Inscription at the pyramid of king Khendjer (~1740 BC) by scribe Nashuyu.
Year 34, IV Shemu 24, day of the festival of Ptah
Full moon, 18 Jun 1245 BC - should be July 18, 1321 BC.

Thus you see there is ample proof the Exodus was at then end of the 1460 year, one day early from 2737 BC = 1456 year, sothis cycle in 1281 BC at the time of the new year in the sojourn into Egypt in year 430, 2307 BC April 1, and thus the Exodus on the same day March 30, 1281 BC. Sirius appeared July 17 instead of July 16. Thus it appeared a day early in the backed up Sothis calendar. Then also, there is much evidence that the pharaoh of the Exodus was Merneptah. After Merneptah Egypt suffered steep decline as to be expected with the destruction of the plagues of the Exodus.