My Manuel Family Tree

The first thing you may notice about my great grandfather, James Ambrose Richards or Bumpy, is his nose. Bumpy is Welsh for grandfather. My grandmother's brother Russell had a big nose too as I well remember. His picture is below. I have a somewhat big nose. Some of it may come from Bumpy as well. The next thing you will notice is his tough side and discipline - just read below of my uncle Bill Bennett's account of him. My father, R.J., has this trait. Obviously lots of people have this trait. What I am saying I do not see it in others near as much. My grandmother also had this trait. The stubbornness so evident in my uncle Bill Bennett in his 10 years as Premier, I have not seen in others near as much either, - may have come from the Manuel side as well. Bumpy did not drink or smoke and was very religious. On a Sunday, when driving my dad and uncle to Vancouver, they were playing cards, when suddenly Bumpy laid down his cards and said "It is Sunday". You could not tell when Bumpy was mad. He was always on. Bumpy managed several coal mines in B.C. and Alberta. When the slab wood needed to be stacked and there were 6 in the house, he would say 3 stack wood while the other three sit and take turns. He was bossy and organized people. That is how he ran coal mines. Whenever there was a mine disaster he was called to help. He did not like biased reports of mine disasters. A fellow miner Cash Cacchioni was communist and Bumpy told him often communism does not work. My grandmother was very religious and more strict than my grandfather. My father said of my grandmother and grandfather he never heard them swear. W.A.C. Bennett was well known for his high moral standards. He did not drink.
Leviticus 10:9 "Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations:
10 And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean;"
Any finness would have come from my grandfather W.A.C. Bennett. He was a gentle man. He told me look but don't touch. He did not quite hold to Matthew 5:28 as much as my grandmother did. Although, he also was more steady. She gave us grandchildren all Bibles when we were 10. Her only disappointment with my father was "Where did I ever go wrong that you did not take your children to Sunday School?" I was six when we stopped going. I dreamt of going to a convention where the women wore long black hair, very family orientated. A true way, very different from church, where there was rest for the soul. This was my first testimony at the Cummings in Sicamous BC in the winter of 1980:
Jeremiah 6:16 Thus saith the LORD, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein.
I got my wish with my first Christian convention at Salmon Arm, BC in the summer of 1980. I just read a diary by Ed Hughes, of when he and Bumpy's father, Tom, came across Canada by train in 1884 - in the archives in Victoria. Ed Hughes was Tom's son in law. None of these traits were evident in Tom. So perhaps they came from Bumpy's mother Elizabeth, Manuel. My grandmother told me before she died that her grandmother was five foot tall, with beady black eyes, snow white hair and very fiesty. She often spoke to me about the family tradition of Spanish descent from the Manuel side of the family from Cornwall. There was speculation the Manuels were descended from a sailor from the Spanish Armada. She said that whenever she or her brother or sister got mad, her dad, Bumpy, would say "that is the Spanish coming out in you."

"Sicilians are of a mixed culture from different people of the mediterranean. We are different from Italians. I always correct people. We are spicier and zestier than italians. Yes, we do have plenty of attitude (talkin to me?) We are very passionate about EVERYTHING we do; making love, eating, drinking, family, sports, the arts. We are also super loyal and dedicated to our real friends." "J Group (J1, J2, etc.) 35% - (J2 30% J1 6%), R Group (primarily R1b) 25%, I Group 15%, K Group 10%, H Group 10%, Others 5%." Some of the J1 and J2 must be Jewish. This even after all the Jewish people were forced to leave the island in 1540. J1 is 10% in Ragusa (Syracuse). Syracuse once controled Greece. Corinthian Greeks settled Syracuse. However, J1 is only 5.5% in Greece. 9 people tested J1, probably all J1e, out of 220 contributed, in Sicily. Probably all 9 are J1e if tested for J1e. That is about 5% of Sicily. Aaron of the Bible was J1e. Descent from Aaron outside of Judaism is almost non existant. The J1e mutation occurred in Anatolia, Turkey, 9,000 years ago. So perhaps, about 5% of Sicily may be descended from Abraham. About 20% of jewish people are J1e descendents and may be descended from Abraham. The book Jacob's Children, gives a figure of 14%. About 2% of Jewish people may be descended from Aaron. About 30 out of 2,000 Spanish contributers are J1e. J1e is now J1c. Of the Ashkenazi Jews 25% are J1 - 20% are J1e, and 20% J2. Of the Sephardic Jews 12% are J1 and 25% are J2. There is not alot of difference in the DNA of Sicily and the Jewish people. Obviously, only 5% of Sicily can be descended from Abraham compared to about 10% of Sephardic Jews. Not all the 20% jewish Ashkenazi J1e can be from Abraham. Abraham worshiped Jesus when he offered up Isaac. Thus the only value I can think of in his heritage is that I worship Jesus. I cannot claim any credit to his worship, only my own.
Obadiah 1:20 "And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south."
Sepharad must be Sardis in Anatolia Turkey. This near where Noah came from. There is only a little J1e from here. However, there is a lot of J2 from here. Perhaps some people of Anatolia converted to Judaism even in early times. Thus perhaps not quite all jewish people who are J1e are descended from Abraham. And the introduction of J2 into the jewish gene pool may have come from Anatolia from 1000 BC on. The Pheonicians in Lebanon traded with Sicily from these early times. Many Sicilians may be descended from earlier migrations of Jewish descendents. The first Christians came to Syracuse where most of the J1, probably, Jewish, descendents lived. Jewish traders with the Greeks may have been the first to Syracuse. There was already a small Christian community in Syracuse when the apostle Paul preached there about 59 AD enroute to Rome. Perhaps the Jordan family came from Giordano and from Sicily. There was persecution against the Christians there. Martyrs in 251 AD and 303 AD may or may not have been catholics. Lucy was martyrd in 303 AD in Syracuse. By 325 AD Syracuse was christianized howbeit mostly Catholic. 660-668 Constans ruled the Byzantine empire in Syracuse. In 726 AD the volcano on the Island of Santorini errupted. The Tidal wave would have hit Syracuse. Then the prophesy in Ezekiel 26 against Tyre in Lebanon would really have been fulfilled. Tyre was wiped out. In 827 AD the Arabs invaded Sicily. Then muslim control till king Roger I gradually conquered Sicily from 1061 - 1091 and freed the Christians. Roger I was instrumental in getting the Crusades under way when he conquered Sicily for Christian control. He fixed the cathedral in Syracuse and put his son Jordan in charge in 1091 AD where he died that year of a fever. In 1054 the eastern and western catholic churches split. Only around Syracuse did there exist a christian population. Perhaps true Christians continued in Syracuse to Roger I. They might have had to adapt like Mozarabs to continue under Muslim control. Meeting in homes they may have continued secretly for many generations. A gravestone in Palermo in 1148 is written in Greek, Hebrew and Arabic. The Hebrew and Arabic was probably written to Jewish and Arab converts to Christianity. When Frederick II died in 1266 the remaining Muslims had to convert to Christianity. Most of the J1 population of Syrcuse had to have arrived with the Jewish communities in the first century AD, or before, rather than with later Arab invasions from 827 AD. The Arabs did not settle much in the Syracuse area, but in the west of the island. Some of the J1 may have come from Carthage and Egypt. Philo gives the number of Jewish people in Egypt as one million, one eighth the population. Carthage may be Tarshish of the Bible. Some of the 30% J1 in Carthage today may be from the Jewish Diasporia and before. The 33% J2 in Sicily must have been near 50% before the Normans. The J2 may have come from Greece. J2 is 20% in Greece and most of the J2 in Sicily is near Syracuse which Corinth in Greece settled. J1 is perhaps 10% in Corinth, so perhaps the J1 in Syracuse came from Corinthians with Jewish ancestry.
Ezekiel 27:7 "Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail; blue and purple from the isles of Elishah was that which covered thee."
Elisha may be Sicily. Perhaps there were dyers of cloth in Sicily from 500 BC. Perhaps there were Jewish people who settled in Syracuse from 500 BC.
Exodus 1:18 "And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children alive?
19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwives come in unto them."
This J1 in Syracuse may be Jewish in origin and explain why Sicilians are so feisty.
Isaiah 66:19 "And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles."
Pul maybe the king of Assyria in 740 BC. This prophesy in the Bible of the Gospel coming to the Islands afar off, must have been fulfilled in Paul's day:
Acts 27:23 "For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, and whom I serve, 27:24 Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.""

After tracing the family tree back to John Manuel, born in 1552 in St Columb Major Cornwall, I became aware of some of the Bible names. Obviously, everyone had Bible names back then. However, some of the names were a little unusual. Like Christian Manuel and Joseph I Manuel. There was an Edwards son of Manuel Roger baptised in 1542. There was a Humphrey son of Emanuel Roger baptised in 1545. He had a son Michaell baptised in 1576. He had a son Christopher baptised in 1581 who might be the Christopher who was the grandfather of Dafydd Manuel born about 1630. There was a Christopher son of Manuel Roger baptised in 1550 that could be the Christopher great grandfather of Dafydd Manuel as well. Dafydd Manuel's father is not known. However, his grandfather or great grandfather was Christopher. There was a James son of Manuel Roger baptised in 1548. There was a Richard son of Manuel Roger baptised in 1554. Perhaps a Richard royalty had invited the Roger royalty in Sicily to work in the Royal tin mines of Cornwall. There was a naming custom about 1524 for many who did not have surnames yet to take their father's Christian name as their surname. However, Roger was Emanuel Roger's surname. Emanuel Roger was directly descended from King Roger of Sicily. There must have been a reason Manuel became the family surname. Emanuel Roger is in the pipe rolls for St. Columb Major 1545 and paid the tax G1, that is a low rate in Goods. Emanuel Roger could not have been very wealthy. However, he had six sons. A John Roger married Marye Marke in 1555 in St Columb Major. This may be a brother or nephew of Emanuel Roger. Perhaps Roger nobility in Cornwall had invited Emanuel Roger to Cornwall from Sicily. There was a family descended from Sir John Roger from 1400 in Western England that was I2b1. There is the possibility these Rogers were brothers and the Roger name was royalty from Sicily. There is a colourful coat of arms for the Roger surname in the palace of Roger II in Palermo Sicily. However, it is not known if this is the original. Roger was a common surname in England. Few Rogers were I2b1 from Roger King of Sicily in England. Even then a Shadrach Roger's ancestors had come back to England from Sicily by 1400. So Emanuel Roger's I2b1 would be expected to be different and 3 mutations over 12 markers over 900 years that are typical for mutations means Shadrach and Emanuel probably share the common ancestor of at least Roger I from 1072 AD. The fact there are mutations means they are two separate family trees from that point. Few families had surnames before the 1420's. Roger or de Hauteville (same thing) were the nobility that had surnames in Sicily from 1072 AD. Roger II's sister and his mother were both wives of the kings of Jerusalem. His grandson Frederick II was King of Jerusalem. Frederick II recaptured Jerusalem and married the Queen of Jerusalem making him King of Jerusalem. The only Jewish people royalty were allowed to marry were Jewish royalty. These were the descendents of King David. There is some record of royalty marrying into the Davidic royal line. Certainly there is evidence from the Khazar Royalty who did marry into Jewish royalty 800 AD. Also, since the Normans had conquered Palestine in the Crusades at the time, it was possible to marry into the Davidic descendents in Palestine. Perhaps there are lineages not recorded. "The star or shield of David (Magen David) appears in the Palatine Chapel, San Cataldo and various other churches of Sicily's Norman era. It remains unclear whether this was an exclusively Jewish symbol in Italy during that period, as it was also an Arab design motif and a Christian allusion to Jesus --who was of the House of David." Jews who fled persecution in Germany in 1400's fled to a community of Lutheran Christian Jews called Palatin in Germany. (Some of my male ancestors, though R1b1 came from Palatin/Belgium about 700 AD. One of my distant R1b1 cousins married into the Ashkenazi Jews perhaps 1000 AD.) There were weavers in Roger's palace. Roger II brought 2,000 Jewish weaver's there in 1147 in Palermo and set up a state silk factory. He had children by these weavers. This was the object of his invasion as records from the time record. Roger's first wife died of the flu in 1135 and Roger did not marry again till 1149. Children by these weavers may have been conceived while Roger was still unmarried. Also, before this, in the 10th and 11th centuries of Arab rule, it was common practice for Muslims to marry Jews. There was a mixture of Arab, Berber, Greek, Roman and local Italian. The Normans had a willingness to marry high born local women. The entire European royal house is said to have been descended ultimately from Khazars. I even found some in my family tree. See The Merovingians . Even one account is given that the Khazars had the lineage of King David. Roger II took notable Jews under his protection. "Yet he did not abolish entirely the palatine jurisdictions of some great landholders of southern Italy - the abbots of Montecassino, for instance, or the counts of Conversano," (A converso was someone who converted from Judaism to Christianity.) Raymond Roger his successor assigned for his Jewish bailiffs a distinguished rank among the barons of his court. In 1287 a Jew of Palermo is recorded in partnership with a Christian in the operation of a silk factory. Frederick II - 1266, established a monopoly over the silk industry and entrusted its management to Jews of Trani. Anything from Sicily would normally be about 1/8,000 of my DNA. The one black hair under my left knee is still a mystery. My father matches a Lawrence who is half Italian. For Italian ancestry to show up there is the possibility it is jewish. My father's population finder is 100% European with .01% margin of error. This .01% is 1/8,000th. Thus very likely the .01% is a trace of African in Sicily, because by a different continent family tree dna may mean Africa. Sicily DNA is 10% African dna. Speaking of the People Finder, I share 13 segments with a Rogers in chromosome 11. However, I am descended from Sir Robert Hungerford and this Rogers is descended from Elizabeth Hungerford who married Roger Winters. The Winters name probably was changed to Rogers. This because Sir John Rogers DNA was I2b1 like Emanual Roger and this Thomas Rogers is R2b1. There is a short section of I2b1 on the Rogers DNA website. They are all descended from King Roger II. So the part of DNA we share must be from this Sir Robert Hungerford 1400. In this line there is distant Jewish royalty left over from the Khazars. This may explain such a large 13 segment chunk we share. There is a John Rogers from 1408 in the Dorset area. The John Roger who married Mary Mark in St Columb Major Cornwall in 1555 may be from Sicily or he may be descended from John Rogers 1408 in nearby Dorset. He may have arrived with Emanuel Roger in 1540 in Cornwall from Sicily or he may have invited his royal cousin Emanuel Roger to Cornwall to work in the tin mines. I am also related to an Orange in a different part of chromosome 19. This is probably from royalty from Orange a department of Mayenne Normandy. This chromosome is where colour, skin colour is from. Perhaps at one time this segment included the genes that give dark skin in the Royalty there at that time 1200 AD. A Martin has a shared segement in chromosome 21 with Rogers. Both are from near Bristol. Martin also shares genes in chromosome 19 with 23 others that appear descended from Margery Jordan. However, this dna may have come down the Y line. A Martin is only 6 genetic distances from me. A Jordan and a Noble likewise. Martin shares the common segment of Chromosome 19 with Noble also. A small segment of chromosome 19 on my father's dna is shared with my mother. My mother has a distant match in a Palestinian, 1 out of 300 tested. Then this segment may have come from Israel.
Sicily royalty were far more Greek than Roman. Emanuel I was the Byzantine emperor over Greece in 1147 AD when Roger II raided Greece. A marriage between Byzantine royalty and Roger may have produced Emanuel Roger. Then Emanuel Roger's ancestors may have extended into the Armenian Royalty who were cheifly local Armenian. The Armenian royalty may even be related to the Herodian royalty. And thus to the Ptolemy dynasty of Egypt from 303 BC. The Ptolemy dynasty married into a number of surrounding royal families. Syracuse and Persia and the Egyptian priests. The Egyptian priests may have continued from ancient Egypt. There was a Manuel in 300 AD in Armenia, a Manuel Bagratuni in 525 AD who continued to 1072 AD King of Georgia. Then emperor Emanuel of Byzantine in 1140 AD. Manuel may have been a name in Sicily from the Byzantine empire. Manuel may even have had been a name in Roman times in Sicily. European royalty had its beginnings with the Armenian royalty. The seat of Byzantine rule had been Syracuse in 660 AD. My mother's is 100% European with .00% margin of error. A large segment of chromosome 19, along with 9 other segments of 2 segments each in other chromosomes, is shared with Joel Czekaj of Poland who knows of no English ancestors. 23 others share the same segment on chromsome 19. These show hints of being descended from Margery Jordan in New England or her father Henry Jordan in England. If Jewish, these 10 different segments from different chromsomes shared with Joel may have been passed down from other Jewish ancestors as well the the Jordans. The common ancestor may be Margery Jordan who emmigrated to New England in about 1600. Then all these English surnames that share this segment probably are from New England. The Jordans had been in England since 1450. So to come from France there probably was a bit of a noble connection. Thus the segments are shared with a Noble and other English surnames. Thus also, parts if this segment and other segments shared with Joel may be Jewish. Though any Jewish segments must be very small or there should be more people with Jewish names in the Family Finder. "But who knows, maybe there are patterns that stay together for various reasons and make fairly unrelated people keep them intact." One of these reasons may have been inbreeding for thousands of years. To be related to 23 people in the same 10 segment long section is about the number expected in comparison to Jewish people matching several hundred people in 23 and me and Gentiles matching 100 to 200. My mother matches 60, my father 83. So this extra 23 seems to be what is expected of a distant Jewish ancestor, such as the J1e Cohen Jordans. Hopefully we will know if this Jewish connection is really true, at least have a better handle, in a few months with the new testing at Family Tree DNA.
Surnames listed when someone matches you should all be taken in. This because probably you don't just share one common ancestor, but two or several - making you appear as closely related as fifth cousin. Such a case is a Lawrence, who also shares this 10 segment part of chromosome 19 and several Italian surnames. Davis is a distant Y relative and also a connection to Italy may be made through Jewish roots in the Y-dna. An example are several Italian Ydna matches such as the Jewish Gambino. Gambino is centered around Palermo, Roger's capital.:
Celello (Italy Wi Mi) Ferrucci (Italy Wi Mi) Carbone (Italy) Fiorella (Italy) Kilwy (Wi Mi) Niemi ??? (Wi) Beldin (Mass to Wisc) Davis (Ohio Mi Wi) Stancel (Va-Okla) Anderson (Ga) Webb (Va - Hancock Tn) Hayes (Hancock Tn) Ayres (Tn Ky) Marlow (Clinton co. Ky) Ganoung (Ill Ohio Ks Okla) Eaton (Canada Ks Okla)
There appears to be a Polish connection as well.
Joel Czekaj Czekaj (Poland) Pedziwiatr (Poland) Jarvenpaa (Jacobson) (Finland) Aho (Finland) Autio (Finland) Matson (Sweden) Erickson (Sweden) Jonsson (Sweden) Borecka (Poland) Szczerkowska (Poland)
Some of the Finnish, Swedish and Polish may have come to Scotland in the 1100 AD. Some of these may have Jewish origins.
Both a Patterson and a Wilson share half their ancestry with Polish names and they are supposed to be fourth cousin.
patterson (nc tenn okla texas ala ireland) sivils (va tenn ark okla england) beavers (north carolina tenn ala) robertson (va tenn ala okla texas sco ire) matthews (ala) bricknell (north carolina) schalski (ill okla ark polish) carmickeal (mo) arnold (nc tenn) blazick (slov ill) kimble (georgia) isbella (ala) sanders (ala) ivey (ala okla) mathis (ala) farris (tenn) robinson (va tenn)
The Robinson may be descended from either Margery Jordan from Suffolk to New England or a Jordan that sailed with the Pierces of Dorset to Virginia. A Wilson also has half Polish names:
Wilson (CT United States) Dziak (Kolackov Slovak Republic) Relovsky (Kolackov Slovak Republic) Torrant (Canada CT United States) Southwick (MA CT United States) Rand (CT United States) Crossley (CT United States) Hubbard (CT United States) Searle (RI MA United States) Spooner (MA United States) Demaranville (MA United States) Cole (MA United States) Sizer (CT United States) Bramble (CT United States) Bacon (CT United States) Tryon (CT United States) Washburn (MA CT United States) White (MA United States) Manchester (RI MA United States) Mraz (Slovak Republic) Madansky (Kolackov Slovak Republic)
You can see many Slavic ancestors. The path of the Jews to Lithuania was from the Slavic states, from the east from 800 AD to 1100 AD. A later German migration from 1100 AD. All Lithuanian traders in Scotland were Jewish.
A "Israelsdotter (SWE GER SD CA)" appears in the list with a Harvey.
There is a Huey, one of the 23, appears in this chromosome 19 segment.
Huey (Ireland) Orr (Ireland) Otto (Holstein Germany) Bruch (Holstein Germany) Marquardt (Holstein Germany) Luders (Holstein Germany) Schumann (Germany) Hummel (Germany) McBride (Ireland) Gaston (Ireland) Houston (Ireland) Christy (Ireland) Claus (Germany) Batz (Germany) Glashoff (Germany) Aschenbrenner Maria Schwab
The Irish names are from near Belfast where the Irish Jordan J1 are from. Perhaps this segment of chromosome 19 came from the Jordans. The German names could also have distant ancestors, perhaps they are also descended from the Jordans as they made their way from the Ukraine to France to England. There may have been some Jews settle in Scotland from 1290 AD. There was trade between Aberdeen and Dundee in Scotland and Poland and Lithuania where there were Jewish merchants. Patterson comes up often in the list of names. A large 22 segment chunk is shared with a Patterson. The name Patterson comes from Clackmannanshire Scotland, near Renfrewshire where most Jewish people, mostly from Lithuania, in Scotland live. Some Pattersons test E1b1b1a2 which matches the Kogels of Germany. Although African, this has been linked to be Jewish in origin. The Ydna may have come from Jews from Libya. A Hall has a Patterson and a Simeon Truman Christie 1730 Scotland. Another person also lists Christie as an ancestor. A John Christie had a son James born July 12 9AM 1690 in Dunfermline Scotland. His Godfayers was King James of Great Britain, France and Ireland, defender of ye Faith and James Finlay. Perhaps John Christie's father took the name Christie to account for Jewish ancestry. The Christie family had taken the surname about 1100. Most Christies are R1b1 like everyone else. Some from Germany are R1a1 - either neolithic or from Palestine, and some are Eb1b1 - African. These could be Jewish in origin. The E1b1b1a2 may be the same as the Patterson E1b1b1a2 probably from the Baltic, perhaps a Jewish trader from Lithuania. Whose ancestry was from the Jews in Libya, thus the African Eb1b1a2. The Christies were probably Scottish Jacobite in religion thus this may also be the reason to name the godfather the King the defender of the Faith. Some Christies moved to Ireland. The Pattersons, Bennetts and Christies were from this same region of Scotland. Also the Clellands and Russells were from this general area as well. Some Bennetts are E1b1b1a1, Semetic Jewish. Some of these Bennetts are Scottish in origin. Then they too may be descended from a Jewish trader from Lithuania. Then also, Bennett cousins who are Jewish, R1b1 from Lithuania, even perhaps my ancestry, may have married into Jewish families in 500 AD, before coming into Scotland, perhaps 1000 AD. Perhaps they were even Cohen and thus took the name Cochran. Then a Cochran may have taken the name Bennett perhaps 1300 AD, a common surname taken in the Lowlands of Scotland then. Fraser is often R1b1a2a1a1b4 of which there are three Ashkenazi in Lithuania listed in the Jewish Rb1 project. My maternal great great grandmother was Sarah Fraser from Scotland. Her X chromosome matches about 60 people in England, 4 Mizrah in Iraq and 4 Misrah in Uzebekastan and 1 Palestinian. Then even on my mother's side I may have distant Jewish ancestry. The common ancestor for these matches is a 50% probability 1300 years ago.
A Veasy matches my father on chromosome 19 as much as does Joel Czekaj. Veasey maybe from Vasquez, a Sephardic name from Spain. Then this segment may be desceded on the Bennett line from when they were in the Jewish population perhaps a thousand years ago or more.
My fourth cousin; Joel's surname Czekaj is common among Ashkenazi Jews in Poland. Zerdanowski is sometimes Zdanski which in Russian means to wait. Czekaj in Polish means to wait. However, Joel informed me, I believe, his Ydna was R2b1. There is a Chekaj from Czekoslavakia I match at about 19 genetic distances and a Zane. Zane's great great grandfather born about 1821 married Leva. Leva probably means Levite. Probably, Zane is of Cohen ancestry. Czekaj is found in a posting to a Norman R1b1 DNA newsgroup. Athough, he does not know of any Jewish ancestors to about 1600. Only 1% of Catholic Polish people have a male Jewish ancestor. This may explain why there is only one person from Poland that matches me at the fourth cousin level. I do not know if I am matched with Jewish people. Nevertheless, before Hitler killed 3 million Jews in Poland, the Jewish population there was 10% of Poland. Still 7% of the population of Poland is J1e from Abraham. So chances are some of Joel's ancestors, though Catholic, were Jewish if you go back far enough. Moreover, a Zerdanowski from the Ukraine, beside Poland, has the same YDNA to the Jordans from Aaron and the name phonetically is the same as Jordan. Zeranski, Jordanski, is from a Jewish city Skvira near Kiev founded by Jewish Khazars. However, the Zerdanowski Y67 is more than 12 markers off the Nathaniel Jordan Y67. Then the Nathaniel Jordan's may have become Christian 2,000 years ago at the time of Christ. Acts 6 - a great company of priests became obedient to the faith. Even the Bennett Cochran Coueran Cohane may have become Christians then. The Jews insist no Cohen left Judaism since the Diasporia. Kiev was founded by the Khazars. Underneath Zerdanowski is a Jordan in Saudi Arabia with almost identical DNA. He is from Khobar in the Persian Gulf. Jews fled to Medina after the war with the Romans in 70 AD and 134 AD. Then the Jordans probably were in Israel at the time of the Roman invasion in 70 AD. The Muslims took control of Medina. Many Jewish people became Muslim. Perhaps the Jordans traveled from Isreal to Medina about 100 AD, then 95 miles north to Khaybar 600 AD - which was also taken then by the Muslims, then east to Khobar. Jewish refugees from Byzantium, Persia, Mesopotamia, and elsewhere flooded into the Khazar realm from the 8th through the 10th centuries. They were in the Crimean peninsula from 400 AD. Zeranski, Zoranksi etc is a common Jewish name in Poland. There is the possibility the Jordans came from Ukraine to Poland to France to England. The Huns of 1240 may have been the reason the Jordans made their way to France. The black plague of 1348 may be the time they became Christian. Then John Jordan in 1400 and Christian Jordan in 1435. Before that possibly the Jordans came from Israel, Turkey, Ukraine. A friend with Jewish ancestry has the surname Degenstein. He could be from Dagestan. Jewish people settled there in large numbers in about 700 AD. They had a Jewish government and aristocracy as did the Khazars. Perhaps the Jordan name did not come from Giordano Italian, but an ealier version of the name Jordan from Israel. Although the Giordano J1 DNA like the Jordan J1 DNA suggests Jordan was a surname among the Jews from a very early period. The common ancestor is very distant, perhaps at the time of Christ, because of all the different mutations among markers between the two families. Perhaps the name Jordan was taken in Khazar. Then perhaps the Joel Czekaj is related by Jewish nobility from the Khazars. Jordanes wrote in about 550 AD that the region of the Khazars north of the Caucasus were Huns. Jordanes ancestry is thought to have been from about the Crimea. This is where the Zerdanowski's must have been from. Before that the Jordans probably came from Saudi Arabia. And before that, from the Jewish Diasporia, from Israel. Jordan means down flowing. Only the Jordan flows down below sea level. The invading Mongols of 1240 would be a good reason for the Jordans to leave the Ukraine and make their way to France by 1400. However, many Jews fled from France and Germany to Poland, where they did not have the plague, in 1348. Margery Jordan had a sister Christian Jordan born in 1569. Thus the Jordan family may have been aware of their Jewish roots. Henry Jordane sounds like Jordain - the Jordains from France. Henry Jordan had a son Henry, baptised February 13 1574. If he had male descendents they should be traceable on the Y chromosome. Perhaps Nathaniel Jordan 1753 Wenhasten Suffolk is descended from Henry. The French Jordans had a seat of nobility. Perhaps the Jordans converted to Christianity with the black plague of 1348 and purchased the right to nobility. Perhaps this is where the 10 segments of chromosome 19 are shared with nobility. This segment of chromosome 19 is shared with a Noble of noble ancestry. There are also Y-dna matches that are Noble. Then perhaps this segment of chromosome 19 is reiforced both from the probable Y-dna Bennett Cohen ancestor and from the Margery Jordan Cohen ancestor. Perhaps the noble line Margery Jordan married into coming into New England is reflected in the names of those from New England who have tested. Several surnames I match are also descendents of Margery Jordan and make up the 23 people that match my father in this segment on chromsome 19. Even my mother matches my father with a tiny part of this segment on chromsome 19 and she appears to have distant Jewish ancestry as well. Zerdanowski J1e Jordan suggests the Jordans came from the Ukraine to Poland to France to England. The Jordans may have married into Khazar royalty. The Khazars were defeated in 969. Thus any Jewish genes may be from 800 AD. The Jordans must have converted recently to Christianity to name John Jordan's son Christian Jordan in 1435. There are some Ashkenazi Jewish people with my R1b YDNA in Latvia. The first Jewish community in Latvia was established in 1571. The ancestry came from Belgium more than a thousand years ago. Probably there was a cousin, even a Bennett, who married into the Jewish community a long time ago rather than an ancestor of mine.
There must have been a strong reason for royalty, such as Emanuel Roger, to leave Sicily. Nobility were actually forbidden to leave Sicily. The nobility was continued till 1530 in Sicily. Relations and communication to and from England was frequent during Norman Sicily. Thus, Emanuel Roger may have received entry into England because of his royal Norman background. From 1282 most of the Sicily nobility had mixed with the Spanish nobility. From 1100 Sicily royalty married into Greek royalty often. Greek royalty was Byzantine and originally Armenian - if I have my facts strait. Most of their lands were confiscated in 1282 with the Spanish takeover, and almost all lands in 1530. Even if dispossessed, Emanuel Roger may have had a hard time in leaving Sicily - the Roger surname was a dead giveaway. Emanuel Roger's fathers may not have continued to marry royalty. They may have married commoners. They may have had lost their title to lands and nobility at any time in the 15 generations they were in Sicily. Over the same 400 year period there are 15 generations to me from John Manuel born 1555. Fifteen times the Rogers took wives in Sicily - 15 generations. The Rogers had dark skin by Emanuel Roger. Dark skin probably came from Semetic and Arabic sources, from Lebanon to Libya. People from nearby Carthage would have dark skin because of mixing with African people. J1 is 30% there in Libya. The wives of the Roger's would mostly be native of Sicily - not Norman Viking French. King Roger I and King Roger II had a lot of dealings with Jewish people in conquering the Island. He conquered the coast of North Africa from Tunis of Tunisia to Tripoli of Lebanon, where Jewish poplulations lived. Roger II succeeded his brother Simon of Hauteville as Count of Sicily in 1105 with his mother (queen consort of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem) as regent. Roger's first wife was descended the daughter of the daughter of a Muslim king, probably Zaida, and had to convert either from Islam or Judaism and change her name to Isabella. Christian chroniclers have assumed she was the daughter of the Muslim king, Islamic scribes suggested she was the daughter in law. "His Majesty the Queen could descende from the Prophet Muhammad from the Mayas of Portugal, by the investigation of Francisco António Dória." If she was the daughter, she could show her descent from the prophet Mohammed and thus presumeably from Ishmael. Roger II's son Frederick II married Isabella II and lived in Jerusalem from 1228 to 1243 as King of Jerusalem. Although Frederick II was not descended from Priness Zaida, he used the connection in negotiatians with muslims. Marriage was a way of uniting factions within the country. All people of Jewish descent had to leave Sicily in 1540. Roger II captured 2,000 Jewish silk workers in 1147 in Thebes Greece and brought them to Palermo to start a state silk factory. This was just across the water from Corinth where early Christians assembled. Paul entered the city in 51,52 AD when Gallio was proconsel - a brother to Seneca. Roger II also captured Corinth and took away its treasures. The city was Catholic. However, there may have been a remnant of the early Church there 1100 years later.
Acts 18:9 "Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision, Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace:
18:10 For I am with thee, and no man shall set on thee to hurt thee: for I have much people in this city."

This attack on the Byzantine Empire was made by Roger's Sicily, the leading Mediterranean maritime power for almost a century. In 1210 Roger II's grandson Frederick II gave the Silk Works to the church. He also imported Jews from Djerba, an island in North Africa, to work in the Silk Works and land to cultivate henna and indigo dyes. "The emperor Frederick II brought Jews to Sicily in order to introduce plants and crafts that the country had not known before. These Jews came from the Balkans, as well as from the isle off Jerba off the coast of North Africa." "The emperor took steps to nationalize the silk and dye industries in 1231. An exodus of Judaic craftsmen took place after 1290 when the Kingdom of Naples spurred a massive emigration by forcibly driving the Jews into Baptism." Roger's descendents were more likely to marry converted Jewish people. Many Jews left North Africa for Sicily. Thus, there was a good population of Jews in Palermo the capital of the Roger dynasty. There were 8,000 Jews among the 100,000 people in Palermo the Capitol of Sicily. The largest Jewish community in Sicily. Frederick II learned Hebrew from living from house to house among the Jews in Palermo. In 1220 200 Jews converted to Christianity in Palermo. King Ferrante of Naples (1458- 1494) was said to be the son of a Jewish mother. There were other Spanish rulers descended from Jewish mothers. Roger II, William and Frederick II married Spanish wives. See Medieval Jewish civilization: an encyclopedia. Thus if any of Emanuel Roger's ancestors had married Jewish wives, even if they were converted to Christianity, that may be the reason he left Sicily about 1540. Even if there is no written record to be found now, a Roger marrying a Jewess, or Christian maid of Jewish ancestry, could never be covered up. Anyone of Jewish ancestry had to leave by 1540 with no exception. People assume most stayed and assimilated. With all property confiscated more likely most left. Roger was the King of Sicily in 1071 when he and Robert Guiscard conquered Sicily for the Normans. His son Roger II, Ruggero the II, was also King of Sicily. Arriving in Italy c. 1035, Humphrey fought in Sicily and Apulia for the Normans. Richard of England, 1189, and Philip recognized Tancred as legal King of Sicily and vowed to keep the peace between all three of their kingdoms. (There may be a connections with the Richards, the jewish tin miners in Cornwall and Richard Earl of Cornwall and thus even the Roger's.) Tancred was the son of Roger III, Roger III was the son of Roger II. You can see a picture of king Tancred here. Note the large nose and dark hair. Like a Roman nose or Jewish nose. Princess Zaida may have been a Jewess. This being the reason she fled from her muslim husband. Then she would be the daughter in law, not the daughter of the Emir. This may be the Jewishness in the Roger line, all the way back to princess Zaida. There must have been mixing with J2 and J1 by Tancred. Roger II had fair hair. Tancred's grandmother, Isabel = Zaida, converted to Christianity perhaps not from Islam but from Judaism. King Edward II married Constanza of Sicily about 1272. King Edward II was the son of Richard I. King James was king of Sicily from 1285 - 1296. King John II 1458 - 1479 authorised a Jewish university in 1466. I do not know the blood connection of Roger to King James and King John. Roger was not in power after 1266. James and John are also religious names as is Christopher. These kings favoured the Jews in Sicily. Thus, although these were not Rogers, the nobility in Sicily had favoured the Jews. And the Rogers when kings had favoured the Jews. These names were used by saints as well as royalty. These names expressed loyalty to Christianity as well as royalty. These names also connected the Roger dynasty with the English dynasty. The dyeworks, dyers of cloth, originally was under royal control. The dyeworks continued to be manned by Jewish people for hundreds of years to Gaspar Lopez. Thus there was at least one strong continuing Jewish connection with the Rogers. In a document from Sicily: "The southern consists of three sections: one section also leads to the white hill to the vineyard of Ibn al-Daqi (the Christian); the second leads from the end of the said lot to the orchard of Roger al-Bargisi; and the third section from the end of the said Persian cane to the vineyard of Hamud al-Barak the tinsmith." The Jews in Sicily, 185 Thus Roger was in use as a first name in Sicily. Perhaps descendents of King Roger had married into Jewish families, thus the name Roger as a first name among the Jews. "The Normans were tolerant with of the Jewish population and in this period Jewish welfare incresed and the culture flourished in many fields (medicine, philosophy, litterature, etc.)" Manuel is one of the surnames listed on this page of Jews in Sicily. The names of these brothers may be reflected by the names of these kings. There was an Emanuel baptised in St Columb Major in 1588 son of a pour begger. The information presented here suggests my ancestors came from Sicily to Bristol, then to St Columb Major. The kingdom of Roger II maintained close ties with England. In 1534 - 1540 all Jews were banished from Sicily. You were considered Jewish even if you had converted to Christianity.

In 1537 Dona Gracia Mendes passed through Bristol. See How the Portuguese Secret Jews (Marranos) Saved England Mendes financed Henry VIII, John III of Portugal, Francis I of France, Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, etc. She may have financed nobility or even Emanuel Roger in Sicily. There may have been a connection between Roger nobility and Jewish nobility. She very likely helped Gaspar Lopes. In 1540, in Milan, Gaspar Lopes told the Inquisition of a secret Jewish community in Bristol the shipping family had imported from Sicily. At Family Tree DNA: "Antonio Marques Gaspar, b. 1820, Ansiao, Portugal J1e" Gaspar Lopes may have been J1e, a descendent of Abraham. 69 Jewish surnames from this time had been researched by Wolf in 1900 in Bristol and London. (Wolf is a Jewish surname) There were probably more than have been uncovered so far. Fernandes named 22 Marranos in Bristol and London from 1545 - 1555. For obvious reasons some may have kept their Jewish origin secret. I do not believe there is any record of Emanuel Roger landing in England. The Bristol community were dyers of cloth - the trade of the Jews in Sicily and the trade of the Lopes shipping family. They were the people Roger II had imported to Palermo Sicily three hundred years previous. Gaspar Lopes compromised the community when he confessed to their existance to the Inquisition in Milan in 1540. There were complaints that some of them were Judaizing, meeting secretly in a home on the Sabbath of Alves Lopes, etc. So the English government ordered their assets seized. The Monarch of the Netherlands interceded. They were able eventually to prove their innocense but many left for the lowlands and were scattered. I believe the area around the Netherlands rather than London was considered the lowlands. Thus the reason the Monarch of the Netherlands interceded. Nevertheless, the lowlands could mean East Anglia, the bulge of flat land north of London. Some Jewish DNA has come from there, like the J1 Jordans from Suffolk. Still a another interpretation would be the lowlands of Scotland. Scotland did not have laws against the Jews. Emanuel Roger may not have been caught up in this. However, he may have at least rode on the same ship from Sicily. Gaspar Lopes told the Inquistion, December 27, 1540, that he knew Alves Lopes in London, whose house holds a synagogue..
Some of the names meeting in Alves Lopes' home in London: Diego della Rogna and his wife, Enrico de Tovar and his wife, Jorge Diez, Gonzales de Capra and his wife, Peter, their son, and his wife, Antonio della Rogna, Anna Pinta and Rodrigo Pinto, her brother and others from London. Rogna is very Italian and Sicilian Jewish. Rogna in Italian meant a scab, an itch or warts. Associated is Tignosini from Palermo which means scabby. The Silk works were in Palermo. There is a old mill in Northern Italy by this name. There is a well in Sicily by this name. In Syriac: "Ethrog (not "esrog") is identical not with the fruit Hadar,* but with the fruit of the tree Hadar, this word signifying in the Hebrew, "beautiful," " magnificent." The word "ethrog,"according to a modern Hebrew scholar, reminds of the "ath-rogna,"in Syriac, which means "orange," (notice the similarity in the two words," athrogna " and "orange") or "tharog" in the Persian and Arabic." So this name may refer to a Hebrew word meaning beautiful and magnificent rather than small and insignificant. A term Regna la Rogna means Trouble Rules. And Roger's reign was known as the Regna. Surnames were taken after 1100 AD in Sicily when Roger II in 1147 sacked the silk works in Thebes Greece and imported 2,000 Jewish silk workers to Palermo Sicily. Even the Emanuel Roger may have got the name Emanuel from the king of Byzantine 1143 AD Emanuel I. The village of Corinth had many coins and bronze statues of Emanuel I dating from the pillage of Corinth of Roger II. Thus the Jews of Corinth, the silk workers, may have identified with Emanuel I. The Emanuel family who rose to nobility in 1285 may have been named after Emanuel I of Byzantine as many Sicily nobility were Greek. Rodrigo Pinto is Spanish for Roger Pinto. Perhaps there was an affinity with Roger II who moved the silk and dye works to Palermo Sicily. "In South Italy it's also the common name of the turkey; with this surname they call boasting people. Families with this name are near Naples and in Sicily." "Tovar, usually preceded by the particle de (meaning from), was the surname adopted in the Middle-Ages by a Castilian noble house of visigothic ancestry that received the lordship of the village of Tovar from Fernando III." Fernando III ruled this Castile Spain from 1217. Thomas Fernades also may have come from the same place. Evora is in Southern Portugal. There must be a reason for a mix of Spanish and Sicilian Italian names among these Jewish immigrants to Bristol. Also in the book The Jews in Shakespear: English sources indicate that in 1540 "a family of Spanish silk weavers were indicted" in London. In 1541 the Privy Council in England arrested unnamed individuals suspected to be Jews. They might have been friends of Alves Lopes or they might have been a different group of Jews, of Italian descent, who had been invited to England as court musicians. Described as "New Christians who came from Portugal" that were imprisoned, and jokes about how they may sing well, but cannot fly away. In 1556 a Portugese sailor Jurdao Vaz (Vazquez?), appeared before the Lisbon Inquisition, and denounced Thomas Fernandes of Evora as a Marrano whom he had know some years before as an observant Jew in Bristol England. They quarreled over a transaction of cloth..From Thomas Fernandes' confession we know that Samuel Usque's history circulated among (and was copied by) members of the Jewish communities in England. In his depiction Fernandes gave the names of 22 Marranos living in Bristol and London between 1545 - 1555. He also specified that the Bristol community held religious services in the house of Henrique Nullez..Nullez's wife Beatriz Fernandes, taught new Marranos prayers..
There were also connections between the Bristol and London communities. Thomas Fernandes told the inquisition that he knew Hector Nullez, a physician who sent word to his uncle in Bristol of the days the Jewish festivals would fall. Simon Ruiz, New Christian, residing in London, used to write to tell the said uncle the dates..

Perhaps Emanuel Roger had some Middle Eastern ancestry. The people of Sicily were genetically mostly the same as other Europeans. About 50% of Sicilian DNA is Rb1 or other common European origin. Even some native Siclans may not have had the dark skin evident in the picture of Joseph Manuel after 10 generations in Cornwall and Wales. "Considering that the Normans conquered Sicily and introduced feudalism here, does this imply that blue-eyed Sicilians are descended from the nobility?" A few, perhaps, but Sicily's aristocrats do not look any different physically from other Sicilians. Under the Normans, Swabians and early Angevins (until around 1300) many barons may have had slightly lighter complexions than the population at large, but intermarriage soon changed this... Most of the Normans who came to Sicily were fighting men who married local women; that both Roger II and Frederick II kept harems and in this way fathered illegitimate children is indicative of social realities. In these "mixed" unions, economic considerations often overshadowed questions of religion, though the Jewish populations, in particular, remained somewhat distinct until the Inquisition forced them into exile or conversion in the 1490s. In the medieval Mediterranean, many everyday social practices of Muslims, Jews and eastern (Orthodox) Christians were similar enough to make adaptation minimal. So Emanuel Roger must have had ancestors who had married Sicilan wives. Intermarriage with Christians was not unusual in Sicily. If Emanuel Roger's ancestors were connected with the dyeworks his father Roger II imported, intermarriage would naturally occur. From Rhys Whatmore: "Dafydd Manuel, born about 1630, was not affected by his grandchildren encountered, when weaving at home under the Domestic System ceased to be viable." "Roger II, 1147, ravaged the coast all along Euboea and the Gulf of Corinth and penetrated as far as Thebes, Greece, where he pillaged the silk factories and carried off the Jewish damask, brocade, and silk weavers, taking them back to Palermo where they formed the basis for the Sicilian silk industry." 2,000 silk workers were imported to Palermo Sicily. "Jews have lived in Greece possibly as early as the Babylonian exile, and certainly had established communities in major Greek cities by the time of Jesus. A Romaniote oral tradition traces the first Jews to arrive in Ioannina shortly after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD. According to the New Testament, in the early days of Christianity, St Paul had preached is several Jewish synagogues in Greece." The Jews weaved in Thebes Greece from at least 700 AD according to some sources. The clothing trade was done in a major way in Palermo Sicily since 1148. There was a very large shipment of silk from Palermo soon after this 1148 and record of high demand for Sicilian silk recorded in one of the documents in The Jews in Sicily. Even if intermarriage cannot be proven, the connection from Emanuel Roger to Roger II can. Then Dafydd's grandfather Christopher may have passed down the weaving skills of his grandfather Manuel Roger from the Christian Jewish Sicilian community in Bristol. They would be very visible with tanned skin and a Sicilian accent. Manuel Roger may have spoken Spanish, Italian and French if educated. He may have been able to read a Latin Bible, the only ones legally available in England till 1560. See Family Crest and Name History. In Italian. Emanuel/Manuel was a common name in Sicily. However, Emanuel was not Emanuel Roger's surname or lineage. Not many surnamed their children with their first names at that time. Roger would have been a logical surname for his children, especially with his heritage. What persecution could he face when there were lots of other Rogers everywhere in Cornwall? Although. the Roger name that was descended from royalty, especially Sicilian royalty, may have been hard to hide. Then perhaps the Manuel surname was not taken for a royal surname but a religious name. Emanuel Roger gave his children Christian names. There must be a reason he would give a new surname that most of the time was Jewish in Sicily at then. Many Jews who fled the persecution in Spain in 1492 took the Manuel name there in Sicily before fleeing elsewhere. At least 30 of these people took the Manuel surname in Sicily before fleeing elsewhere in a record of names I saw in 2009. King Roger was one of the greatest kings of Europe and King of Sicily. His descendents sometimes went to other places in Europe. However, the names Roger and Joseph I, Joseph was the Patron Saint of Sicily, suggest the Manuels / Roger who came to Cornwall were a long time in Sicily. The Jews in Sicily had the same Catholic idols in their homes as the Sicilian Christians. They were very familiar with Catholic teachings and fit in with Catholic neighbours according to a researched article I read at Jstor. Sicily may also be the connection with Pempero - an Italian name. I have a Pempero family crest sent from Italy. A genealogist from Italy informed me there is not one person with the Pempero surname in Italy today. The name is strange even in Italian. The royal family crest for Pempero gives no dates before 1867. However, it does make sense royalty from Sicily would have a common bond and the name had just died out. The Richards who possibly were of royal descent working in the tin mines may have invited royalty, the Pempero's and Roger's from Sicily to come to work in the tin mines in Cornwall. Communication from Norman England with Norman royalty in Sicily was pretty freqent. Just the same, there must have been a good reason royalty left Sicily.
"The Expulsion of the Jews from Sicily began in 1493 when the Spanish Inquisition reached the island of Sicily and its Jewish population of 30,000 Jews." There were two waves of emmigration from Sicily. In 1493 and again in 1534 - 1540. In this population I believe the Manuels descended. John Manuel's birth is dated 1552. He married in 1581 and died in 1609 in St Columb Major. Then John must be a brother to the other Manuels listed in the book. There is a gap between 1554 and 1571 when the baptism records were lost. John must have been recorded then. So the year of his birth must be about 1555. You can see the records of his brothers in the book for yourself. You will see the link at the bottom of the page: 2 The Registers of the Parish of St Columb Major (1539 - 1780), Edited by Arthur J Jewers F.S.A. So click here to get to the page. Then the Manuels had to be at St Columb Major by 1542, perhaps to work in the tin mines when the King openned them commercially that year. Emanuel Roger may have had an invitation to work in the tin mines being royalty. However, often royalty was not welcomed back into England from Sicily. Robert Manuel born in 1595 on his marriage record in 1620 is spelled Robte Manwell. Obviously this was spelled phonetically. Then the Spanish pronunciation Manwell may have been how the Manuel's pronounced their name, perhaps suggesting a Spanish origin. All the Manuels descended from this Manuel Roger from 1542 on. Manuel is "a rare English surname through lateness of its introduction to England". Some of these immigrants to Bristol were dyers of cloth, the trade of the Jews in Sicily. However, most of the names of Jews in Bristol are not on the list of Jewish names from Sicily according to one genealogist. Joseph I was one of the next generation of Manuel children. Joseph was the patron Saint of Sicily. This was the same as giving a name Christian Manuel from Sicily. Everyone in Sicily who was descended from the Jewish people was considered Jewish. All Jewish people in 1493 had to convert to Christianity. This was about the time Emanuel Roger's parents were born. Emanuel Roger's mother may have converted to Christianity and married his father out of necessity. However, the New Christians were still treated as Jews. There was an uprising against the New Christians in Sicily in 1516. Some of the Jews adopted new names, place names, colours of textiles, etc then. Pempero is an unusual name. Its origin may be the name of a colour or textile as well. There is a strong possibility Elizabeth Pempero's father came from Sicily at the same time too. There were few foreign names in this part of Cornwall. For information on how the Jacob family may perhaps be of Jewish descent from Jewish tin miners perhaps from before the expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290 click here. Some Jacob descendents from England are R1a1 from the Middle East. Some R1a1 are thought to have come over in neolithic times as farmers. Some tested may even possibly have come from Sicily: "The couple Jacobus celamidarius and Poma, the the consent of their children and Jacobus' brother sell Nicolaus Candi a tinsmith's business, situated in the Iudayca of Palermo, for 3 ounces." The Jews in Sicily, 299 1299 AD. 20 of 40 people tested in the Dead Sea area are R1a1. Certainly the Jacob surname was common in Cornwall. Most Jacobs probably are Christian names. A few Jacobs in 1540 may be Jewish, especially if the name was Jcabiss. There were Jews associated with the tin mines before they were expelled in 1290. Some may have stayed and kept a very Jewish name like Jacob. Names like Lucas Jacob and Pascow Jacob were of Italian and French origin. By the time Francis Manuel married Emblem Jacob in 1704, Emblem Jacob would have about the same "Spanish" origin story as I did if her Jacob ancestry dated back to the expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290. In the 12th century Cornwall was the only source of tin in the known world. Bodmin had many early mines. For 10 generations the Manuels were miners in Cornwall and married the daughters of miners. Richards were miners too from these early times as well. The chances some of the Jewish tin miners converted to Christianity and continued to mine tin after 1290 is pretty good. "Bodmin, 1349 an epic novel of Christians and Jews in the plague years" That the plague made its way to Bodmin then may have been a sign to some then that there were Jews among them. The children of the Jews of Bodmin that left in 1290 may have continued to live hidden among the people there. A man descended from Richard Earl of Cornwall and of Jewish blood by his mother may have been spared for his royal blood. Also, the children may have been taken in by the church. Perhaps church was the connection how William Richards of 1770 was born in the Germoe Parish.
Then the chances the Manuels intermarried with some of the Jewish tin miner descendents is also good. Many Jews converted in the plague of 1348 because they were blamed for the plague all through Europe at the time. All Jews were to leave England in 1290. Some that converted to Christianity and stayed may have been persecuted in 1349 in Bodmin. Mary Richards, who married Francis Manuel, grandfather William Richards was born in Bodmin in 1551 and probably a tin miner. There is mention of Jews and Gentiles in connection with tin taxes. There is also some actual evidence of Jews in Cornwall. In 1853 a hollow tin alloy figure, was found near a Jew's house dating from the 1200's with four Hebrew letters. The four letters spell RCRD. Hebrew does not have vowels. So this would be Richard. It was buried 10 feet down in Bodwen Moore in the parish of Lanlivery. It had a crown and may be a representation of Richard, King of the Romans and Earl of Cornwall. Henry III was Richards brother and he farmed out the Jews to him. Thus what interest they had in the tin mines was at his disposal. Thereby Richard became very rich. See Encyclopedia Perenthesis free ebook. June 5 1240 he granted Bodmin to be a free borough. Thus, perhaps Jewish tin miners in Bodmin showed their appreciation to Richard for no taxes. The Jews living in England were well known and usually were forced to live near the nobility for protection. Perhaps some took the name of Rycard, Richard, in appreciation. "In January, 1257, the votes of three electors, Cologne, Mainz, and the Palatine, were cast for Richard," and he became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Palatine became a Jewish community in Germany in 1300. Henry II handed over all the Jews in England to Richard Earl of Cornwall in 1245. Thus Richard was popular among the Jews for a time. Because of the tin mines in Cornwall Richard was the richest man in England besides the King. The pope offered Richard the Kingdom of Sicily, but Richard declined at the steep price. Bodmin is very close to St Columb Major and St Austell where the Manuels and Richards miners came from. Mary Richards' grandfather, William Richards, was born in Bodmin in 1551 and James Richards, Bumpy's great grandfather, was born in St Austell nearby. The old Bodmin road connects the two and St Austell had many ancient tin mines as well as Bodmin. James Ambrose Richards grandfather James Richards was born in St Austell and was a copper miner.

The only ones surnamed Manuel in Spain, before 1500 outside of royalty, were the Sephardic Jews. Manuel was often spelled Manoel for non-jews. For instance King Manuel I of Portugal was really King Manoel I. The Sephardic surname Manuel was taken long before Janton Manuel, a Sephardic Jew, is recorded in the book "History of the Jews in Aragon" in Daroca Spain in 1311. Obviously Emanuel Roger was royalty. However, he would have known in choosing Manuel as a surname, instead of the family name Roger, there would be more associations with jewish heritage than with royal heritage. How would people in Cornwall know Emanuel was a name of nobility in Sicily? Even from Sicily Manuel was just as common among the jews as among the nobility. Emanuel was named to the nobility in Sicily in 1285, probably by the Spanish who had just taken control of Sicily, and became a common name in Sicily. The surname Emanuel if from Sicily may be Haplo group B - one person with the Manuel surname tested for Haplo group B. Perhaps the Emanuel nobility was African in heritage as Haplo group B is. Emanuel Roger must have had a noble background. That year in 1540 in Cornwall often the parent surnamed his son after his first name. However, this was rare, and there must have been a religious reason also for choosing the surname Manuel. There must have been intermarriage in Sicily. A few years after 1492 the Muslims were ordered to convert to Christianity. A large segment of the poplulation in Sicily was Muslim. By 1300 most Muslims in Sicily had been forced to become Catholic. Manuel could be a name chosen to avoid association with the Muslims. There were several Jews surnamed Manuel in Toledo in the 1492 census. Some names like Catalina Gentil Manuel who emigrated to New Grenada from Spain in 1569 obviously were Gentile. Everywhere the name had to be qualified. The Manuel name was also a Christian name, first name, from Castile Spain from the 1300's that became a surname in the 1500's. Emanuel who was named to the nobility in Sicily in 1285 may possibly have come from Spain who had just taken the Island of Sicily. In 1492 all Jews had to convert to Christianity or be burned at the stake. Many fled to Sicily and took the surname Manuel before fleeing elsewhere. I read of at least 30 jews choosing the surname Manuel in Sicily before fleeing elsewhere. The noble Emanuel family in Sicily would have to distinguish themselves from the Jews after 1492 to continue to live in Sicily. Obviously they stayed for they continue there to this day. Emanuel Roger did not stay. Emanuel Roger would be very aware of the Inquisition. If he had a Jewish ancestor his chances were far better in England than to continue in Sicily where he would be found out and at best persecuted. Jews were not supposed to enter England at the time. However, Jewish people who had converted to Christianity at the time were allowed in such as in Bristol. Some of Gaspar Lopes' company of silk workers were allowed in as conversos. So if Emanuel Roger was Chistian and had a Jewish ancestor that was not near as big a problem in England as it was in Sicily. There was more tolerance in England. One of his great grandchildren was named Christian Manuel much like Jews who converted to Christianity in Europe would, say, call themselves Christian Kaufman or Christian Yoder or Christian Israel Limeberger as my wife's ancestors. You could not escape the connotation.

Philip Richards married Elizabeth Pempero in 1613, born in 1580. de Pempero was a name associated with nobility in Italy in 1897. The name Pempero is not native to Cornwall in any way whatsoever. The family crest of Pempero from Italy suggests Elizabeth Pempero's father came from Italy. In 1534 all New Christians had to leave Sicily. Most of them went to Italy, perhaps where the Pempero family crest originated. Their daughter Mary Richards married Francis Manuel in 1653. Thus the 'Spanish' traits could come from all both Manuel and Pempero, landing in Cornwall about 1536. This may be the case with Dafydd Manuel of Wales born about 1631. Thus Elizabeth Pempero marrying Francis Manuel may both be royal lines from Sicily. See The ancestors of Esther Whatmore (nee Manuel). His ancestor Christopher Manuel may be Christopher Manuel baptised in 1550 or Christopher Manuel baptised in 1581 - a brother or nephew of my ancestor John Manuel. Middle Eastern traits may be expressed both in the picture of Joseph Manuel with his dark skin at the top of her page on Dafydd Manuel's descendants, and the description my grandmother gave of her grandmother Elizabeth Manuel with beady black eyes and the long tradition of 'Spanish' descent. There is the possibility then my birthmark comes from Emanuel Roger and that ultimately from the Middle East.
Jeremiah 13:23 Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil.
Only God's divine power can change our human nature.
Some of the Jewish boat people from Spain landed in Sicily in 1492 temporarily before leaving again. However, there were about 30,000 Jews already in Sicily. 20% of men of Spain and Portugal are directly descended from the Sephardic Jews on the male Y-Chromosone. However, this 20% includes only about 20% J2 and 12% J1. In southern Spain and Portugal 15% of the population is J2. Probably this includes haplogroup I as well. J2 from the Middle East that may be Jewish probably is 6%. About a third of this may be Arabic Muslim in origin. About 11% of Spain is descended from the Muslim Arabs. About 25% of Spanish Jews are J2 and about 12% of Spanish Jews are J1. About 30% of Sicily is J2 and 6% J1. J2 at such a high percentage indicates Jewish ancestry. J2a4b is about 20% of the 30% J2 that is Sicily and can be easily identified with the Jews, 6% of Sicily. However, descent from Abraham must be J1. Forensic reconstruction of what Jesus would have looked like in 2001. The Jews comprised 6% of the population of Sicily in 1492. (12% of the jews at that time could be J1) So about five times the population of jews in 1493 were the population of people of ancient Jewish ancestry. If 20% of men of Spain and Portugal are descended from the Sephardic Jews, including those who had converted to Judaism up to 1492, then many more of Sicily must be descended from the Jewish people, at least from ancient times. Eastern Sicily is 12% J1 today and the Jewish people left in 1540. So the chances Emanuel Roger's fathers had married wives with Jewish ancestry is pretty high. Even Sicily royalty was not immune to Jewish ancestry, especially if there were dealings with jewish people such as in the silk business. Only half a percent of Cornwall is J1 or J2 from since the diasporia. So if there were Jewish tin miners there is very little trace in Cornish DNA. One of my ancestors was Margery Jordan born 24 Apr 1572 Brundish, Suffolk, England. A dozen Jordan surnames tested are J1. Some of the other 90% Jordans may come from an earlier family in England that dates from 1200 AD that is not related. That these Jordans are descended from Aaron the brother of Moses is certain according to who does 90% of genetic testing today. That is only about 10% of Jordans. Some of these J1 Jordans are from Ireland, two are from Nathaniel Jordan, 1753 of Wenhaston, Suffolk, England. Brundish is only 20 km west of Wenhaston. John Jordaine was born about 1400 in France. Christian Jordaine in 1435 and Robert Jordaine in 1445 in France. Christian as a first name sometimes suggests Jewish ancestry known to the father who gave the name. Nevertheless, the value to Family Tree DNA is that this Jordan family had split from the others in the sample group a long time ago. Thus there would be a ancient branch of the lineage of Aaron pointing to a common ancestor 1300 BC.
This was a complete mystery to me when I had my YDNA. When the results came back from testing, it was found that my markers are the same as that of the priestly people of Cohen of the Jewish religion that can be traced directly back to Aaron, the brother of Moses. I then became the cornerstone for those that tested the same as me in the J1 Haplogroup.
Phil Jordan
There is the possibility that these Jordans had become Christians with the priests in Jerusalem in 35 AD. Robert moved to Dorset England. From there connects to the Irish Jordans who tested J1. Perhaps Margery Jordan was fifth generation English. There was a Sisely Jordan who emmigrated to the United States in 1610. Perhaps the Jordans are related to the Giordano of Sicily. There was a Jordanes clerk who wrote the history of the Goths from 500 AD and who wrote of his conversion. Perhaps he converted from Judaism to Christianity. His father was from the Sarmatian region of the Ukraine, where the Zerdanowski Jordans were from.
30% of the population of Azerbaijani beside Armenia beside Mount Ararat are J1. Though the Jewish J1e seems to come from Anatolia Turkey. Then this line may follow from Adam perhaps 4550 BC in Azerbaijani or Turkey. Then Abraham must be J1 rather than J2 as most the genealogy testing has discovered. There were a half million or more Jews in Spain in 1300. Jews in France started to convert to Christianity about 1250. So if the population of Spain was 5 million in 1492, 20% of that is 1 million who must have all converted to Christianity by 1492. In 1492 there was a boat people crisis. Many left Spain but were at the mercy of the people at the shores where they landed. A strong cluster of Jewish I2* have been traced to the middle east. However, the Norman Roger house of Hauteville I2b1 probably came from the local viking population rather than ever having been Jewish. Some suggest European royalty may have had an ancient jewish origin. However, there is no evidence for this. I2b1 Manuels have been tested from Charles Manuel in Maryland 1805. They are descended from Manuels from Newfoundland, which if I am correct, are descended from John Manuel of 1757 in Dorset England - probably descended from my Manuels. Dorset is right beside Cornwall. The earliest source of the Manuels was Emanuel Roger and is a relatively rare name. The names of Charles' children are very like this Manuel tree. Other Manuels are I1 and may be the Manuels from Scotland. The Manuels in Scotland originated at least by 1100 with the Viking Normans. I1 is close to I2b1 genetically. Then if Roger I was Emanuel Roger's father, his I2b1 came from Norman France, then from the Vikings in Norway and Sweden. All the I2b1 Smiths are different from this Charles Manuel's I2b1. However, all the Sicilian I2b1 are similar to Shadrach Roger or Emanuel Roger (Charles Manuel). This suggests Emanuel Roger and Shadrach Roger both descend from King Roger II. This also suggests the other I2b1's from Sicily may be descended from Roger II as well. For 11 results from Sicily out of 220, the Roger's must have had large families. Or other viking family came to Sicily with Roger I.
I2b 15 23 15 10 15 15 11 13 11 13 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 29 11 14 14 15 11 9 19 21 14 14 17 19 35 40 12 10
I2b1 15 24 15 10 15 15 11 13 13 14 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 21 27 11 14 14 15 11 9 19 21 14 14 17 17 33 41 13 10
R138054 William Richards b. Abt. 1770-1774, Germoe parish, Cornwall, England
I2b1 14 23 16 10 14 16 11 13 11 13 12 29 17 8 10 11 11 26 15 20 26 11 13 14 15 11 10 19 19 16 16 17 21 34 35 12 10 With just 13 genetic steps different over 37 markers, in markers with a tendency to frequent mutations, Charles and Shadrack almost certainly share Roger II as a common ancestor 900 years ago. Most genealogists deal with a common ancestor 450 years ago and several mutations over 37 markers with the same surname is not uncommon. My closest relative is 5 genetic steps away from me over 67 markers. To go back 900 years is rare. To get only 13 genetic steps with the same surname in that period of time is only reasonable. Even the Richards may be descended from the same royalty, from Richard Earl of Cornwall. Richard was the great great grandson of King Fulk of Jerusalem of Normandy. The same as Roger's from Tancred is of Normandy. This may also be I2b1 from even further back. This may account for William Richards of Bodmin 1551 having the descendent William Richards of Germoe. Then William Richards may got his name from William X of Aquitaine and Philip Richards, Mary Richards father, may got his namee from Philippa of Toulouse, the wife of William X. This may account for how James Ambrose (Bumpy) Richards looks like royalty. Both Manuel (Roger) and perhaps Richards royalty descendents worked in the tin mines. Perhaps Richard Earl of Cornwall had a jewish mistress, daughter of a Jewish tin miner, in Bodmin. Richard did have mistresses. The son of a mistress is morelikely to have become a commoner. His illegitemate son Richard de Cornwall is his only known descendent. This would explain the Hebrew tin figurine of Richard Earl of Cornwall found in Bodmin dating from 1290 AD. In 1290 AD all Jews were expelled from England. In 1348 was the black plague, and it hit Bodmin hard. There is the possibility Jewish descendents in Bodmin were targeted and blamed as Jews were throughout Europe at the time. However, some may have escaped being burnt to death.

Dicks, (Dicaire) b-UK,appears in Nfld.1791;b1774
R1b1b2a1b5 now R1b1a2a1 - may be descended from the Jewish R1b1a2a1:
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 17 30 15 15 17 17 11 11 19 21 14 15 17 17 36 36 12 12 11 9 16 16 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 22 23 16 10 12 12 17 10 12 23 20 13 13 11 13 11 11 12 12
61748 John McMackin, (McMeeken) Br 1797 New Jersey Scotland R1b1a2a1a1b5a
13 24 14 12 11-14 12 12 12 12 13 28 18 9-10 11 11 26 15 19 29 15-15-16-18 10 11 19-23 15 15 18 17 36-37 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 17 8 12 23 20 13 13 11 13 11 11 12 12
116134 Abraham Schoenberg (c. 1812 - ?) Hungary R1b1a2a1a1b5a
13 24 14 10 12-14 12 12 10 13 13 30 17 8-10 11 11 24 15 19 29 15-15-16-17 12 10 19-23 17 16 19 17 36-38 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 10 17 8 12 22 20 15 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
Both above are the same halpogroup.
N28740 Price Wales R1b1a2a1a1b4
13 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9-10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15-16-16-19 10 11 19-23 15 15 18 18 37-43 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 11 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
99631 Tzadik Prago, ABT 1858, Ushpol, Lithuania Lithuania R1b1a2a1a1b4 Jewish R1b1
13 24 14 11 11-15 12 11 11 13 14 29 17 9-9 11 11 25 15 19 29 15-15-15-16 11 11 19-23 15 15 18 17 39-41 11 12 11 9 15-16 9 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 14 8 13 22 20 13 12 11 14 11 11 12 12
I mismatch Price by 17 markers out of 67 and there is a R1b1a2a1a1a4 Price from Cork.
N16706 James Moore, b.c. 1680, NC?; d.c. 1740, NC, USA Unknown Origin R1b1a2a1a1a4
13 23 14 11 11-15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9-10 11 11 24 15 19 28 15-16-17-18 11 9 19-22 17 16 16 19 38-38 14 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 17 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
128641 James Moore b. 1540 Ireland d. 1705 S. Carolina Ireland R1b1a2a1a1a
13 24 15 12 11-14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9-10 11 11 25 14 19 28 15-15-17-17 11 11 19-23 17 15 18 18 38-39 13 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 15 10 12 12 13 9 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
164370 Rodríguez (Sephardic) Puerto Rico R1b1a2a1a1a4
13 23 14 11 11-14 12 12 12 13 13 29 15 10-10 11 11 24 14 19 30 15-15-17-17 10 12 19-23 18 15 17 17 37-39 12 12 11 6 15-16 8 10 7 8 10 10 0 23-23 16 10 12 12 16 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
107114 Bennett United Kingdom R1b1a2a
12 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9-9 11 11 24 16 19 30 14-15-17-17 11 11 19-23 15 17 19 18 39-40 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 14 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 13 12 11 12 12
W-9 68804 WA Walton R1b1a2
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 11 12 19 24 16 15 18 17 37 37 12 12 12 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 22 16 10 12 12 15 8 11 22 20 13 12 11 14 11 11 12 12
90390 Isaac Coen b 1784 Penn d.1864 Wetzel W Va Ireland R1b1a2a1a1a
13 25 14 10 11-11 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9-10 11 11 24 15 19 29 15-15-16-17 11 11 19-22 16 15 17 17 36-36 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 0 22-23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 19 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 11
You can compare my markers, Andrew Bennett, to Thomas Bennett:
Thomas Bennett L48
13 23 14 10 11 14 12 12 11 14 14 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 17 18 11 11 19 23 17 15 17 16 38 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 16 8 12 22 20 14 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
Andrew Bennett L48
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 31 15 15 17 18 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 18 34 39 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 17 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
7353 Berel Katsev, b.c.1825, Papile, Lithuania Latvia R1b1a2a1a1a4a L47
13 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 11 13 13 28 17 9-10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15-15-15-18 11 11 19-23 15 15 18 19 37-38 12 11 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-25 16 10 12 12 17 8 12 24 21 13 12 11 14 11 11 13 12
55790 Kaye Lithuania R1b1a2a
12 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 13 14 13 30 17 9-9 11 11 25 15 19 28 15-15-16-17 11 12 19-23 15 15 17 18 36-37 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 11 11 12 23-23 16 11 12 12 16 8 11 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
29799 Ashkenazi-Levite England R1b1a2a1a1a
13 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 10 13 13 30
9056 John Silver, arrived in Burlington, NJ, in 1682 England R1b1a2a1a1a
13 24 14 11 12-14 12 12 12 13 13 31 17 9-10 11 11 24 14 19 30 15-15-16-17 12 10 19-23 18 15 16 17 36-37 12 12 11 10 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 13 11 13 11 11 13 12
C-7 34598 William D. Cockerham R1b1b2
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 30 14 15 17 18 11 11 19 23 17 15 17 18 35 39 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 17 8 12 23 20 12 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
184053 Wm. L. Cochran, 1818-1894 R1b1b2
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 30 15 15 17 18 11 11 19 23 17 15 17 18 35 39 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 15 10 12 12 17 8 12 23 20 12 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
118577 Jacob Cochran, b. 1757, Northern Ireland, UK Northern Ireland R1b1a2a1a1a
13 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 12 14 13 30 18 9-10 11 11 26 15 19 30 15-15-17-18 11 11 19-23 17 15 17 18 35-39 12 12
96183 James Cockburne, b.1639 Scotland R1b1a2a1a1a
13 24 14 11 11-15 12 12 12 13 13 31 16 9-10 11 11 24 15 19 31 15-15-17-17 11 10 19-23 15 15 18 16 35-38 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
57152 Wesley J Burns Scotland Scotland R1b1a2a1a1a4
14 23 14 11 11-14 12 12 11 13 14 30 17 9-9 11 11 25 15 19 29 15-15-16-17 13 10 19-23 16 15 19 19 37-39 12 12
131047 James Burns, bc1757 PA or Scotland R1b1b2a1a4 L48
13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 28 17 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 31 15 15 15 18 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 18 38 38 12 11 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 25 16 10 12 12 16 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 13 12 11 13 12
COHEN116 Ashkenazi Netherlands R-M269
13 24 14 11 12 15 12 12 12 12 13 28 17 9 10 11 11 25
106998 Matthew Moore b.1809,VA d.aft.1880,KY Unknown Origin R1b1a2a1a1a
13 23 14 11 13-13 12 12 13 14 13 30 18 9-10 11 11 24 14 19 29 15-15-16-18 11 12 19-23 15 15 17 18 36-36 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-23 16 10 12 12 15 8 13 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
130919 Thomas Merrill, Saybrook, CT, 1683 England R1b1a2a1a1a4
13 24 14 11 11-14 12 12 12 13 13 29
132853 Samuel Morell born 1670 in Dumfriesshire, Scotland Scotland R1b1a2a1a1a4
13 23 14 11 11-13 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9-10 11 11 24 15 19 29 14-16-17-17-18-18 11 10 19-23 17 15 16 17 36-38 12 12 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-24 15 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
Angel Vasquez
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 29 18 8 8 11 11 33 14 18 29 15 15 15 15 17 17 10 10 19 23 16 15 16 19 36 38 11 12 13 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 11 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 11 22 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
181390 Oliveira Portugal R1b1a2a1a1a (4123806 Sattich is very similar) from the Sephardic Anousim Project
13 23 14 11 11-14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9-9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15-15-15-15-15-15 11 11 19-23 15 15 19 18 37-39 12 12
22703 Mandolini-Pesaresi Italy R1b1a2
12 24 14 10 10-14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9-10 11 11 25 15 19 31 14-15-17-18
12 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 16 18 11 11 19 23 15 15 0 0 0 0 12 12
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 11 13 19 24 15 15 0 0 0 0 12 12

N7174 Unknown, Russia (Belarus?) R1b1a2a1a1a4
R-L48 L1-, L48+, M126-, M153-, M160-, M173+, M18-, M207+, M222-, M269+, M343+, M37-, M65-, M73-, P107-, P25+, P66-, SRY2627-, U106+, U152-, U198-
80280 Abram Begelferikhes, b.c.1780, Joniskis, Lithuania R1b1a2a1a1a4
R-L48 L48+, U106+
179938 emil rubinsohn,
1850-1910 R1b1a2a1a1a4 R-L48 L48+, U106+
179938 emil rubinsohn, 1850-1910 Germany R1b1a2a1a1a4 - history needed.
13 23 14 11 11-14 12 12 11 13 13 28 17 9-10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15-15-17-18 10 11 19-23 16 15 17 19 37-37 12 11 11 9 15-16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23-25 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
76424 Rachmieyl ben YeKuszieyl, b.c.1889, Suwalki Gub. R1b1a2a1a1a4 R-L48 L48+, U106+
The Jewish L47 descended from L48 more than 10 generations ago. Probably the common ancestor is within 80 generations or 2,000 years. Likewise Neyer is a Anouism Sephardic name that has more than 20 out of 67 markers different from me. This suggests a common ancestor before Christ. Likewise Thomas Bennett is R-L48 with 20 markers different from me. This likewise suggests a common ancestor before Christ. The common ancestor between me and the R1b1 Cohanes - Cohens was probably about the time of Christ. Then even Thomas Bennett's ancestor may have been Jewish before the time of Christ. Was Thomas Bennett's ancestors Cohens also?
There is a Cochran born on Moore Hill in Scotland. The Moores were the Muslim Spanish that conquered Spain in 700 AD. This Moore is the same haplogroup as me as far as it goes. Even a Moore is in the walk the Y for L48, the same as me. Could there have been Jewish Moores? From Wikipedia: "Possibly derived from Maurus, a Roman first name which meant "dark skinned" in Latin, and related to the Old French More meaning "Moor", a colloquial nickname for a person of dark complexion, often describing someone of North African descent." "Are the Muirs/Moores/Moirs Jewish?": In a new book Love & Death Over Tea "Anglicizing the priestly Cohen to Cochran strictly to assimilate" - so this is becoming common knowledge. There was a Merrill in Saybrooke Connecticutt where the Bennetts were from, 1680, with similar Y12 dna. My surname may have been Merrill before becoming Bennett. This could mean Morell, Merrill, were the same root as me and the name derived from dark complexion. They came over with William the Conquerer. Mortelliti is very similar from Sicily.
A 12 marker match to me is Vasquez. The surname Vasquez has been identified by multiple sources to include the Holy Office of the Catholic Church of Spain as a Sephardic (Jewish) surname. If you are interested in researching this aspect of the Vasquez family line of Spain, you are invited to visit, located at A Vasquez member identified Gaucher in his daughter as from Ashkenazi. Found in 9% of Ashkenazi and 1% of the normal population.
Likewise a Dawkins is a close matche. Dawkins means David's son. Even there is a Davison match and a Adams match. All these trees may have split before 1200 AD when these individuals are recorded. The Davidsons, Davissons, were almost wiped out in Scotland because they were so fierce fighters.
This suggests a route from Israel from 70 AD. These DNA split from the Jewish community about the time of Christ.
There is a Parisini match at Y12. "Another variation is Parese. My grandfather was a Parisi but his named was misspelled on immigration documents when he arrived at Ellis Island from Italy. My grandfather was from the Apulia area. I have always been interested in the name origin, at one time I was told it was Spanish and the name came from Paraiso an area in Spain where the Moors drove the people out and they fled to Italy and were known as Paraiso's which became Parisi" - Also perhaps from Pharisee. Pernisie is Italian and may be the same name.
A Massey is seven steps away from me at Y67. Massey may be from the Roman name Massius from Matthew - a Jewish name.
Some 12 marker exact matches:
A 12 marker match Lewis, may be an American form of Levi. Or may be Frankish from Hludwig meaning loud battle, or the word for leader.
Rose may be a purchased Jewish name.
Howard Hugihard - Anglo Saxon means heart brave.
Brigg from the old Norse word for bridge. Both Brigg and Cochran come from Renfrewshire as does Rose and Kinkade.
Travers - from taxes for the upkeep of a bridge.
Wilson from Berwickshire Scotland, where the Thomas Bennett and Cochrans are from. Although Thomas Bennett was not a Cochran.
Stohr is an exact 12 marker match and is Ashkenazi.
Please see R1b Cohane Project - Background These lines go back more than a thousand years and some theorize date to before the Diasporia of 70 AD. Even the R1b1a2a1a of the R1b1 Cohane project have a common ancestor 3500 years ago. This is before the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt April 4 1279 BC. There is a mountain tribe in Africa that are R1b1 and have a common ancestor 130 generations ago, the time of the Exodus. They also have Jewish traditions. Even I have a match in Benin, Syria-arab, Ukraine Belarus Lithuania Poland Latvia Hungary Ashkenazi, Netherlands - Ashkenazi Levite, Greece Spain Bulgaria Sephardic, Chinese Muslim, Algeria, Cyprus, Armenia, Uzbekastan, Turkey, Qatar. More distantly from Armenia, Iran (Armenian) Ethiopia, Egypt. Even the surname Bedro meaning priest. Some of these may indicate Jewish R1b1 in Israel at the time of Christ. Some are from Italy and Greece:
Acts 18:2 "And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them."

There are 20 genetic distances between Thomas Bennett and me. There is about 19 genitic distances between me and the Latvian Ashkenazi. This suggests a more recent ancestor that was Ashkenazi Jewish than the common ancestor to Thomas Bennett. Thomas Bennett's SNP was tested and found to be different from mine. This just means we share the same surname by chance. Our most recent common ancestor probably was about 970 AD with the rest of the Small Scottish Cluster, before surnames were taken. My Y-dna date share a common ancestor with the R1b1 Cohanes from about the time of the Diasporia of 70 AD or the time of Christ 33 AD. This could be useful in dating when my ancestor might have went to Israel. Cochran has about 7 genetic distances. Both Bennetts probably took the name Bennett in Scotland about 1400. However, mine came from Cochran. Both were just as religious. One reason for the same names as matches in my Ydna and in my father's autosomomal dna may be the doubling of Cohen dna both from R1b1 and Margery Jordan J1. Moreover, my New England relatives may have had more of a religious inclination to leave Scotland and England as puritans for New England because of an ancient Jewish experience. That is, some Jewish religious genes being passed on. Some Eb1b1a1 Bennetts may have entered Scotland after marrying into Jewish families that went to Lithuania that went to Scotland as Jewish traders a thousand years ago. Thus these distant Jewish people also must have took the name Bennett in Scotland for religious reasons. So over 67 markers the Roger/Manuel YDNA rate of mutation over 900 years are similar to the Thomas Bennett rate of mutation. However, a Cochran rate of mutation of seven puts our common Cochran ancestor at 1200 AD and a Manuel/Roger rate of mutation of 13 of 37 may put the the Roger common ancestor at 1100 AD. The most recent common ancestor with the other Bennetts may be about 1000 AD. Sometime before this perhaps the Cochran/Bennett tree split with the Lithuania Ashkenazi tree. Coueran came from Cohen. Many R1b1a2a1a1a4 are cohen. Even a six genetic distances from me is a McCowen - Cohen. Freeman is also sometimes considered Jewish. Silverman is 2 markers off out of 12. Sean Silver is R1b1 Cohen and the administrater of the project.
One Roger YDNA has 5 mutations over 37 markers. These Roger trees given on the Rogers website seem to split 1600 AD - 1400 AD. So 13 mutations over 37 markers from Roger II in 1100 AD is certainly possible. Perhaps both the common Cochran ancestor and the common Roger II ancestor go back 900 years to 1100 AD. A list of people whose surname is Roger are all from King Roger I of Sicily. Most of Emanuel Roger's DNA must have been Mediterranean origninally from the Middle East. Probably 32% of Emanuel Roger's fathers, other than King Roger I, were J2 - Semetic and some probably Jewish in origin - just like every other Sicilian. Emanuel was both a Jewish first name and a Christian royal first name at the time. Emanuel Roger's parents must have been born just before 1492 because if Emanuel Roger was 27 in 1542 when he had Edward, he was born in 1515. Then his parents most likely were about 25 when they had Emanuel Roger and born before the Diasporia of 1492. Either the name Emanuel was chosen to be Jewish or it was chosen to be Christian. Some large chunks of DNA come from nobility. However, Bennett Greenspan of Family Tree DNA could not see any Jewish people in my Family Finder. Nevertheless, Czekaj from Poland is a Jewish surname there. Nobility did not marry into Jewish families as a rule. When they did it was ommitted from the records. So at this point it is hard to tell if Emanuel Roger had ancestors of Jewish descent. Definitely he had ancestors that were J2 and J1 from the Middle East though.

Jewish Yuters of the Baltic My wife's ancestors were Yoders.
D2426 Jacob Ioder-Bureau Co, Il (D) 64290
I2b1 15 23 16 10 15 16 11 13 11 12 12 30 15 8 10 11 11 24 14 20 27 11 14 14 15 11 9 18 21 14 14 17 20 33 37 12 10 11 8 15 16 8 11 10 8 10 9 12 21 22 15 11 12 12 13 9 12 27 20 11 13 12 12 11 12 12 11
You can compare them to the I2b1 of Shadrach Roger and Charles Manuel above.
On my mother's side is Dinah Martin born in 1690 Halse, Somerset, England. The name was just Christian a few months ago. There is the possibility of Jewish ancestry. The J2 Jewish Martins are from Spain as in the Spanish DNA registry. Martin Lopes and Francis Lopes remained after the Jewish community in Bristol, Somerset, and London were dispersed in 1540. Some Martins may have been descended from Martin Lopes. Halse is 70 km south of Bristol by road. R1a1 is common among Martins and possibly is Jewish.
131671 Valentine Martin 1709 - 1760 England
R1a1 13 25 16 10 11-15 12 12 11 13 11 31 15 9-9 11 11 24 14 20 33 12-15-16-16 11 11 19-23 14 16 18 19 34-39 12 11 11 8 17-17 8 11 10 8 9 10 12 22-22 15 10 12 12 13 8 15 23 23 12 12 11 13 10 11 12 13
R80992 Benjamin Richard b.1880,Montgomery County,PA
R1a1 13 26 16 11 11 13 12 12 11 13 12 30 16 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 33 12 12 15 15 11 12 19 23 17 15 18 20 36 38 14 11
There are only two Richards with R1a1. Nevertheless, with the similarity between the two, both possibly are Jewish in origin.
There are a few J2 Martins from New England. They may be from Spain where Martin is usually J2, or they may be this Martin Lopes in England. They probably are Jewish in origin as well.
Another ancestor is Christian Munro born about 1755 in Scotland. Monros are R1b1a2a1a1b. Some Jewish people are also R1b1a2a1a1b. So there is at least the possibility the original Munro to Scotland in 1000 AD had Jewish ancestry. My Bennett ydna is R1b1a2a1a1a4 which is fairly similar.
Likewise another ancestor was named Christian, born in 1552 in Chievely Berkshire England - the church registry openned in 1560. Likewise another ancestor was Elizabeth Freeman, 1766, Warwickshire married John Underhill. A John Freeman was born about 1600 in Oxfordshire. He was J2. Freeman may refer to Jewish ancestry. A Jew who converted to Christianity may have been made a "Free Man". Likewise, a serf of Jewish ancestry may had had help from Jews in England before 1290 to buy his freedom. This surmame may date from 1290 when the Jews were forced to convert or leave England. Or the surname Freeman could date from earlier periods of Jewish slavery.
9437 John - cir 1600 England
J2 12 24 14 10 14 17 11 15 13 12 11 29 16 8 10 11 11 25 16 19 31 13 14 15 18 10 10 19 20 13 14 17 17 36 37 11 9
This J2 could be the J2a4b of the second Cohen type that this Richards submitted:
R96367 Charles A. Richards b.Abt.1871,MA,USA
J2a4b 12 23 14 10 13 17 11 16 11 13 11 30 18 9 9 11 11 26 15 19 29 12 14 15 16 10 11 19 22 15 13 19 17 34 39 12 9
There is a difference of about one mutation on each marker. This suggests the connection to the same individual may be Jewish as well. There are alot of J2a4b in Sicily, about a quarter of the J2. J2a4b cannot be from primitive man before Israel came to be. Almost half the J2's in Sicily could be Jewish in origin.
Comparing the DYS values of I2b1 there seems to be quite a bit of difference. However, the place of origin of I2b1 in the Baltic is the same. Roger came from a long line of Kings to the King of Sweden in 200 AD. I2b1 is common in Scandinavia and Germany coming from the Baltic.
There are very few I2b1 in Sicily, about 2%. There are a few I2b1 from Aragon Spain. However, this may be from migration from Sicily.
Stewart is a common name in Scotland. My great grandmother's second name on my mother's side. In the book "When Scotland was Jewish" the Stewarts are often descended from Jewish Portugese after 1300. However, except for a few R1a, G and Eb1(african) all the rest are R1b. On my father's side, the y chromosome closely matches a Rose, at least for 12 markers. Rose was an example of an Hebrew purchased name from Rosh "Head".

Richards is a common Cornish surname. Bumpy may have received his personality from his father. His fathers the Richards were miners from the 1700's in Cornwall at least. Mary Richards' fathers may have been miners from the 1500's and earlier as well. However, nothing unusual about his father Tom or the Richards family has been passed down. Although my grandmother was curious about them. Most Richards are R1b. The same as 80% of England. A few are DYS 393 = 12, the rare type from the Near East. A few I1's and I2's from the near East and some R1a1's and one J2a4b, from the Middle East. Some Jews are J2a4b and R1a1. 46% of the priestly clans of Cohen are J1e. Some are J2a4b. I do not know if any of my Richards family have tested. Nicholas Rickard was born in Lanlivery in 1734. This is where a hollow tin charactor of King Richard with Hebrew writing dating to 1200 AD was found 10 feet down. From 1200 there are only 300 years to Mary Richard's fathers. Then there is the possibility these Richards are descended from Jewish tin miners or even possibly from King Richard. The only one from Cornwall for sure is Francis Richard b.Abt.1640,St.Stephens,Brannell,Cornwall,Eng. d.1725, R1b1b2.
Some who claim direct descent from King Richard match his DNA closely.
King Richard led Crusades to Israel. The Jordan name is said to have been taken from the Crusades from the Jordan River. This may be the origin of my ancestory Margery Jordan 1572 BC, Brundish, Suffolk, England. King Richard may have brought Jewish people back to France in 1240 and be the source of the Jordans. Likewise the Jordans could have come out of Palestine and back with the Crusaders in 1100. He may have favoured Jewish tin miners in Cornwall also. John Jordan was born in France about 1400 and the family is recorded as nobility shortly after. King Roger I's daughter was the wife of Raymond IV of Toulouse who took Jerusalem. When he conquered Jerusalem he refused to take the crown in honour of our Lord Jesus. From the interest in the Crusades some of Roger I's sons may have married Jewish wives. He had sons Jordan - about 1055 when he first arrived in southern Italy, Geoffery, Mauger who made no claim to Sicily as count, Simon who was count of Sicily for 4 years and Roger II. Although Jordan was illegitemate, he was given Syracuse. Syracuse is where most of the J1 population was found. Where the Giordano, Jordan family, was from. Roger had at least 4 illegitimate daughters, 4 sons, and perhaps some illegitimate sons. Very likely Emanuel Roger was descended from Roger II. "Richard refused (1252) Pope Innocent IV's offer of the Sicilian crown (which Henry later accepted for his son Edmund), but in 1257 he had himself elected king of the Romans (i.e., emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire)."

"5. As recorded by Roland Jordan of Maine, who is doing a book on Rev. Robert Jordan. During the 3rd crusade in 1100, King Richard (Not Richard the Earl of Cornwall) saw a person (Sir William Deardon) slay a Saraceon foe in the Jordan river. The King then dubbed him as Sir Jordan in honor of his herioc deed. Then Sir Jordan appealed to the King for permission to change his surname to Jordan and the name of the Hamlet where he lived. The King approved. Also, this is recorded by the Dartmoor Historical Society." Dartmoor is in Devon beside Dorset where Robert Jordain travelled to from France by 1470. So these may be the same Jordans. Richard Earl of Cornwall who went on the sixth crusade in 1239 may have brought them back to France in 1240. Jordan may be a name given to someone from the banks of the Jordan River.
There is an Italian version also:
"2. The Italian version: The JORDAN surname derives from a young noble from the city of Ravenna , who at 18 years of age, enrolled in the Knights of the Tosson d'Or inder the command of Baron Marc Antonio Colonna di Ravezza. After ten years of fighing the cardre of 200 was reduced to 13 and Colonna decided to return to Italy - specifically to Abruzzo.
Before his return, our antecedent was re-baptized in the river Jordan to cancel out his pre v i o us life and to lustrate himself from the ten year contact with death. He was given the name " Iordanus", which he took backto Abruzzo.
Upon his return in the spring of 1154, he was rewarded with our family's first feudal holding in Abruzzp Citeriore - Torino diSangro.
The name changed over the centuries from "de Iordanus" to"diGiordano".It was Il Magnifico D on Vincenzo di Iordan (1741-1810) who "italianized" the name in 1757."
The origin of the name Jordan, Giordano, can be traced back to Iordanes, Iordanus, in the second and third centuries AD. It is possible the Jordan family from Suffolk who were descended from Aaron of the Bible were descended from early Christians instead of from the Jews of the diasporia:
Acts 6:7 "And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith."
So the Jordans may have come from Sicily as well as the Manuels. Entry of the Ashkenazi into Europe probably was through Sicily. Giordano is a common surname in Sicily and is found amoung Jewish people. N26910 Giovanni Giordano, Saponara, Sicily birth 1865
J1 12 25 14 10 12-19 11 13 11 14 11 30 21 8-9 10 11 26 14 21 31 15-15-15-15 11 10 20-22 14 13 17 19 35-36 12 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 21-22 16 10 11 13 17 8 12 26 20 16 12 11 13 11 12 12 11

5522 Nathaniel Jordan b 1753 Wenhaston, SFK, England England
J1 12 23 14 10 13-17 11 15 11 13 11 30 17 8-9 10 11 25 14 20 25 12-13-16-17 11 10 22-22 15 14 18 17 34-36 12 10
98294 Mortka Velvil Zerdanowski Ukraine
J1 12 23 14 10 14-17 11 17 12 13 11 29 17 8-8 11 11 26 14 20 26 14-14-15-15 11 10 21-23 15 12 18 17 32-32 12 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 11 8 11 9 12 21-22 19 10 12 12 17 8 12 25 21 14 12 11 13 12 12 12 11
Thus Giordano and the Jordans of Suffolk, England may be related. As well the Jordans and Zerdanowski's. Then both are J1e and possibly the Giordano are descended from Aaron of the Bible. Giordano is a mountain in Sicily. In the year 1328, the mount took the name of Mount Giordano, the name of Giordano Orsini, Roman Senator in 1341. Most Jordans have a Christian surname. However, J1 Jordans and Giordanos and Zerdanowskis may have been Jewish, rather than a Christian name from Crusader times, and some converted to Christianity as late as 1300 AD. Comparing the Ydna of the Jordans and the Zerdanowsky it does not seem possible the Jordans of Suffolk converted to Christianity with the priests as in the book of Acts. Rather the Zerdanowski Jordans must have been the priests who did not convert to Christianity in the time of Jesus. "Gordon is a permutation of Jordan and with the JG5 Aaron dna is found in Sicily, as well as other areas of the Diasporia including Sweden." See When Scotland was Jewish, DNA and population studies, pg.33.

One of my ancestors is a Reynolds, Hannah Reynolds Birth 1770 in Jolicure, Westmorland, New Brunswick, Canada - daughter of Major Reynolds. One Reynolds tested for G2a3 and another R1a1. However, must Reynolds are the common R2b1. These odd Separdic DNA appear in just about every common name. They are Rare. But this means almost everyone has Jewish ancestors. 5% of Fosters are J2. J2 shows up as a percentage in many popular names. Then the 1% J2 in England probably goes across the board in everyone's DNA. Likewise the .5% J1 in England. There is about .5% J1 in Cornwall which may be from the Jewish tin miners. The more rare J1e, or now J1c, is found in England too. Not just in the Jordan name. Although, many autosomal DNA that may be Jewish can be traced to the Jordans coming to Dorset, Suffolk and Ireland.
"Richard Cleypole 1480-1512, Northamptonshire, Eng
J1e 12 24 14 10 13-18 11 16 11 14 11 32 16 8-9 11 11 25 14 21 26 13-13-15-15-16-17 11 10 19-23 15 13 15 20 33-36 12 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 22-22 21 10 12 12 16 8 12 26 21 14 12 11 15 11 12 12 11
Likewise one of my wife's ancestors is a Levi Clemens from Palatine Germany. "Ariel-Carlos-Salustiano-Clemente (b. ~ 1875)
J1e 12 23 15 10 13-19 11 16 11 13 11 30 17 8-9 11 11 25 14 20 24 12-14-16-18 11 10 22-22 15 14 17 17 30-37 12 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 21-22 18 10 12 12 15 9 12 25 21 14 12 11 13 11 12 12 11
J1e if Jewish probably is descended from Abraham. Pope Clement VI spoke against popular prejudice and criminal acts against the Jews at the height of the Black Death in 1348. The Jews were blamed for the plague and burned from Spain to Poland. The worst persecution was in Germany. This may be the origin of the surname Clemens and Clemente in 1348 when surnames were being taken. Jews fled to Palatine Germany in 1348 to escape persecution and become Christians. They later formed a Lutheran community there of 163 families. The Jordans from Suffolk may have converted to Christianity about 1348 also. In 1307 all Jews were ordered to leave France. So the Jordans may have converted to Christianity by 1300. Thus the baptismal record for John Jordan born 1400 in France and thus his son named Christian Jordan in 1425.

Here is my Manuel family tree:
1515 Emanuel Roger, Sicily
1552 John Manuel St Columb Major Cornwall
1595 Robert Manuel
1628 Francis Manuel married Mary Richards 1653 whose mother was Elizabeth Pempero
1655 John Manuel
1675 John Manuel married Emblem Jacob 1704
1711 Richard Manuel
1746 Ambrose Manuel
1782 Ambrose Manuel
1806 Ambrose Manuel who moved to Wales
1843 Elizabeth Manuel, married Thomas Richards who moved to Alberta/British Columbia, Canada
1874 James Ambrose Richards, Bumpy
1897 Elizabeth May Richards, married W.A.C. Bennett who moved to Kelowna, BC
1929 R.J. Bennett
1962 Andrew Bennett

The Manuels were miners from 1542. King John in 1199 included Jews in stating that tin was not to leave England. King Edward expelled all Jews from England in 1290. Supposedly this was the reason tin mine production fell by half in Cornwall because the loc did not know how to mine it or market it when the Jews left. Emanuel Roger may have left Bristol in search of work in the newly openned tin mines by Henry the VIII, 1542, in Cornwall. There was a Manuel Edward working in one of the tin mines in Cornwall in 1590. Jews were active in the international metal market. So the Manuels may have had some experience with met before coming to St Columb Major even though they would be dyers of cloth by trade. See Ancient traces of the Jews in Devon and Cornwall. Up unto that time tin was mined on the surface gravel. Shaft mining tapping the lode itself in Cornwall began in the 1500's. There was one tin mine in Allier France in the 1500's. There are some Manuel names from Allier France: Nicole Manuel Jurie married 1634 and Germain Manuel Jurie married 1634. Jehan Manuel Jurie and Jacques Manuel Jurie were witnesses to marriages in 1640. "This interesting surname, with variant spelling Jewry, derives from the Anglo-French "juerie", (Olde French "juierie"), meaning Jewry, and was originally given either as a habitational name to a member of the Jewish Community living in that section of a town, or as a topographical name to a non-Jew living near the Jewish quarters of a town or city." But most tin mining was done in north western Spain, Galicia. However, the Sicily connection is strong. "In Sicily, there was a long tradition of Jewish activity in the mines from the times of the emperor Tiberius, who sent 4,000 Jewish youths as slaves to the mines. Jews were commonly engaged there not only in the manufacture of metalware but also in mining silver and iron. In spite of the opposition of the local authorities, a royal decree of 1327 ordered Sicilian officials to support Jewish mine prospectors and miners. At the beginning of the 15th century two Jews of *Alghero received special authorization to exploit the resources of the region, on condition that half the output be handed over to the crown." So from John Manuel's father, who must have immigrated about 1536 to Bristol from Sicily and taken up tin mining 150 miles west in St Columb Major by 1542, all my Manuel ancestors may have been all miners to James Ambrose Richards born in Wales who in a Welsh cencus was listed as a Scholar. I do not know if he went to the Glasgow Mining School or not to become a mine engineer. If you click here you will see a diploma for James Ambrose Richards' wife's father. Bumpy was a mine engineer and managed mines in Alberta and BC and was mine inspector for the province of Alberta. Bumpy's wife's family were employed in the mines keeping record of the miner's hours of work and did not use pick and shovel. Bumpy's favourite chapter of the Bible was Corinthians 13. The religious environment of Wales and Scotland in the 1880's promoted this chapter in helping people deal with alchoholism at the time. Even a book published then, The Greatest Thing, was all about Corinthians 13. Bumpy's grandfather-in-law, Matthew Clellands went to this Glasgow School of Mines in 1859-1860. A son of a miner from Lancashire went to this mining school in the 1880's. Something very important may have happened at this mining school that influenced a man who became a part of the Free Church movement. A Donald Murray, from Pictou Nova Scotia, probably a cousin of my ancestor David Murray, was listed at the time as Religion: Free Church. The Truth came out of the Free Church movement.

When I called my cousin Steven Bennett about the possibility we may be of Spanish descent, he responded that he had wondered about his dark brown eyes and fair ability to tan and dark wavy hair. When his father was premier and appeared on the 5pm news people noticed his beard had grown since he had shaved, a 5 O'Clock shadow. A friend, Doug Morse, who is a minister, worker, in our church, came over to my grandmother's house for a visit when my uncle Bill Bennett was there. He noticed uncle Bill had a 5 O'Clock shadow. However, he also noticed it was not that he needed to shave twice a day, but that his beard was so dark.

My grandmother had a solarium in the south facing dining room. She had many plants. A friend Paul Lee said it was like a jungle. One plant she was fond of was the Wandering Jew. I do not know if she ever made the connection. However, she made plenty of unleavened cornish bread. Her favourite was 12 grain bread. She did look up Manuel cousins when she went to Wales and she looked up what she could about the Manuels when she went to Madrid Spain. She showed me the picture of her with her Manuel cousins in Wales and the picture of her with Spanish friends in Madrid. My grandmother and her father Bumpy had brown eyes. Not unlike some people of Jewish descent in my church.

We had a dear friend work for the family all her life, 60 years. We called her Auntie Winnie. She and I were close friends since childhood, we corresponded when I was in private school and when I came to stay with my grandmother after W.A.C. Bennett passed away she invited me to Gospel Meetings. I professed Jan 27 1980 and ever since. Now a few years later, in 1983, I was praying earnestly. I had just prayed to believe more in Jesus and if the Manuel side was Jewish - at this time that was just a hunch - that I would try not to think about it if it hindered me. Just then there was a loud crash in the closet. Something had hit the clothes hangers with terrific force. I got up and walked over to the closet. The clothes hangers were swinging wildly and were bent, as if something had flown through them and materialized to run into them. They were bent on the hook part of the clothes hangers. I was a little shaken. My uncle Bill Bennett came to the door of the house for a ride to his government jet. I believe he had just called an election. So I drove him to the airport. I did not tell anyone about this, except Winnie, for years. Then about 1994 I went to my grandmother's house and picked up a few of the remaining bent clothes hangers. I had a friend, Glen Weigel, working at the University of BC in a physics lab of some kind. So I gave him the clothes hangers and explained the basics of what happened. He and his colleagues measured the force to produce the noticeable bend in the clothes hangers. They determined it took a force of 5 to 10 pounds. You can see some of the hangers here. There were many far more bent than the ones that appear:

Years later and I have found believing more in Jesus and thinking less about the Manuel ancestry helps.

Obviously to go back 14 generations you may only find a trace of Spanish.

I am very fair with brown hair and fair skin that does not tan very easily. All my ancestors are British. However, years ago I noticed a jet black hair under my left knee. All the other hairs are white. Years ago I grew several jet black chest hairs. All the other hairs are brown.

Aunt Winnie pointed out this verse to me. She said I may be fortunate the Spanish ancestor, or ancestors, on the Manuel side was more than 10 generations back. It is in the King James Version and the Septuagint but not in the Dead Sea Scrolls even though the verses before it and after it are in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Sometimes the Ammonite was a type of the Jews to the Christians in the New Testament. However, all people are welcome by the gospel. Aunt Winnie had tried to interest my grandmother in the gospel and she would have tried to interest Bumpy too. She suspected the 'Spanish' side had something to do with their hardness. Bumpy took mine engineering at the University of Glasgow just a few years after someone else I know. His favourite chapter in the Bible was I Corinthians 13. The following verses from the Septuagint are identical to the King James:

Deuteronomy 23:3 The Ammanite and Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord, even until the tenth generation he shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord, even for ever:
4 because they met you not with bread and water by the way, when ye went out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor of Mesopotamia to curse thee.
5 But the Lord thy God would not hearken to Balaam; and the Lord thy God changed the curses into blessings, because the Lord thy God loved thee.
6 Thou shalt not speak peaceably or profitably to them all thy days for ever.

The following is in the Dead Sea Scrolls. I do not know if the previous four verses were a missing fragment in the scroll. Obviously the previous four verses seem needed to fit the context. There is a grey triangle in the book at the end of Deuteronomy 22 indicating the end of that paper in the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible. Then there is the possibility Deuteronomy 23:1-4 were in a missing fragment.

Deuteronomy 23:5 Yet the LORD your God would not listen to Balaam, but the LORD your God turned the curse into a blessing for you because the LORD your God loved you.
6 You shall not promote their welfare nor their prosperity as long as you live.

Three years is often mentioned in the Bible, see Genesis 15. Three years of days from Jesus' birth in 4 BC is 1093 AD about when the first crusade reached Sicily and persecution against the Jews started. This was about when Roger II was born. The Jews did not convert to Christianity much until the persecution was severe. Like in 1360 in Spain and finally in 1492 when there was no choice. Exactly one Sothis period, 1460 years, from Jesus' crucifixion in 33 AD is 1492 AD. A Sothis period is four years of days in years. Let the year back up .25 days a year, what happens if you don't keep track of the .25 days, and in 1460 years the calendar will have backed up to the same calendar date.

Aunt Winnie and my grandmother, May Bennett

May Bennett

May Bennett about 36 years old.

R.J. Bennett as a young boy.

R.J. Anita and Bill Bennett in 1950

W.A.C. Bennett's mother at 45, descendent of Margery Jordan

Zerdanowski Siblings Skvira Ukraine
dressed in Cohen gold lace.

W.A.C. Bennett's mother, Emma at 80

Bill, Anita and R.J.
May and W.A.C. at their 50th wedding anniversary in 1977

The 10 grandchildren in 1977

Russell Richards, and his sisters: Helen, May and Jean in 1977.

Bumpy, James Ambrose Richards

Stan Underhill b. 1899, ancestors Elizabeth Freeman, J2 or R1b1 Cohen, and Dinah Martin, J2 or R1b1 Cohen, and possibly the Dorset Jordans J1 Cohen. Large segments seem to come from the Cornish side, probably are Jewish possibly from Jewish tin miners from 1290 AD.

The viking Hauteville nobility very soon intermarried with Sicilians after Roger II. The Roger nobility was taken over by the Aragonese of Spain in 1282. This may be where the "Spanish" descent legend comes from. In 1285 there was an Emanuel family who were raised to the ranks of the nobility. Emanuel became a popular name in Sicily as a first name. The nobility maintained its sense of lineage. Some nobility held onto their estates, some with higher education were able to support their families without an estate. Inheritance was passed on to the eldest. The younger were to go join the army, the calvery. There was an agreement made by nobles to support the Aragonese royalty in 1283. So some Roger descendents may have held onto their estates. There had to have been intermarriage with Sicilians. The Jewish people kept to themselves. However, with 15 generations in Sicily, and the many business dealings with the Roger nobility and the Jewish people, there were likely opportunities for intermarriage. The house of Hauteville, Roger, were very few and minor in power and influence compared to other nobility from 1266. The Italian Wars, 1494-1559, where France had been invited to invade Italy by Milan, were led in 1515 by Francis I. This was to be the name of Francis Manuel 1628 Cornwall. One of Francis Manuel's children was named Christian Manuel. There may have been a struggle to avoid association with the Jews when religious tensions were high. However, this may also have been an internal struggle manifested in the child's name. Likewise, a Christian name like Joseph I, the Patron Saint of Sicily, may have been given to emphasize the virgin birth of Christ.

"These poems circulated in Wales, helping to maintain the use and knowledge of the Welsh language. It is believed that first book in Welsh published by Thomas Jones at Shrewsbury, was 'Carolau a Dyriau Duwiol' in 1695 and this contained a poem by Dafydd Manuel in which he expressed his horror at the thought that the protestant kingdom established by William and Mary, might be overturned."

"Although the Manuels of Trefeglwys were never wealthy, Dafydd Manuel's immediate family must have had some money as Dafydd clearly received a good education - possibly at Oswestry Grammar School or at Friars School, Bangor. It may be that Dafydd's first language was English, as there were a good number of English settlers in the parish by his time, but he had an excellent command of both English and Welsh." The english version of the Bible was banned from 1407. Not untill the Geneva Bible of 1560 was the English version available. So only by the time John Manuel was of reading age were the Manuels able to read the Bible. Nevertheless, their language from their father may have been Spanish or Italian and so their Latin Bible. Then all the more reason to enroll the children in English school. Being royalty they may have had some money.

Lollardry spread to nearby Somerset in the 15th century.

It is said the old poet rhymed the following lines as an insult to some of the inhabitants of the parish of Llangurig: 'a mountainous place, where I stayed and found them, between children of Hades and mad chicks, chislers and beggars of the world.'

The old man and his children were once taking wheat to the mill to be ground and on the way Deio said, 'Daddy you are always babbling about poetry with Malen; I will beat her rotten.' At that, down came the load from Malen's head; and the old man, sittting down and looking at the millwheel, said, 'Well now, all of us put two arms to it to make a "cywydd deuair hirion' [a complex poetic form].'To the mill and its useful machinery, that makes noise in the water there.' And then Deio offered up: 'If the mill stops turning Sion and Cadi will shut up. 'He meant the miller and his wife. And then Malen tried and said: 'It fills and gladdens every hand, dust of the mill, it grinds silently. 'And the father answered and said, 'At this time I will hide my opinion by being silent.'

As the old man and his daughter were driving pigs to Llanidloes fair, a poet of Llangurig was told they were coming. He went to meet them at the tollhouse as they were passing it, and said, 'Send the best pig with the pin in his head to the top of the town.' Malen the daughter answered, [perhaps she had a pin in her hair] 'Not a pin despite the length of the head. [long-headed =intelligent]. Truly, Sir, it is just a wire.' And the man replied to her response, 'Devil take you and your offspring.' "

Poem by Dafydd Manuel


On a measure called 'The Honey Lip'

You mort of sad lives
That embrace the thought of those like you
And whose God is your own needs daily
The sense of wealth is closest to your heart
Open the eyes of your minds
And consider infinity;
Here is sung in truth
About a cursed wretched pig
A fatal desire for dissipation,
A duty that is desired
If we want an age of goodness
Is not to worship the mummy of Mammon,
The spent and transient fragments
Instead of the wealth of the land of Angels

The foolish and rootless
Build on the sands
They fill their barns full
And think of the gold in its coffers;
On the evening of the sign of leaving
When his soul is asked for
To give account of his talents
Of the world's wealth that he has saved
And the brave pangs when death comes
If Moses and the Prophets come
To call together with Deifes
The miser is so hard-headed
Oh, until it is too late, to consider loss!

While the day and the light last
And mercy and its most truthful boon
Jesus is beating at the door
It is best to open to him;
Before the enemy gets his wish
And his poor wicked toys
From his unending jealousy
To poison the soul
Having angered the blessed lamb
Make true friends only
From your mortal worldly wealth
Throw your bread upon the waters
It will be given back to you when that is proper
When there is nothing left of all this world.

Bill Bennett

When he hit you, you didn't forget it

The 48 year old premier has been in office for five years (since 1976); his father, W.A.C. Bennett, held the job for 20. The premier talked to Paul Grescoe in Victoria.

I was a skinny, underweight, jaudiced baby. Winnie Earl came to help my mother when I was being born, and Winnie never left. She's still there in the big old house in Kelowna, BC. Outside of my parents, she probably had the greatest infuence on me in my formative years. She's a very good, honest woman -- a Christian in the noblest definition of the term. She was such a good example because she was so generous and unselfish. And a good companion, too. There was a creek running through our property and I can remember one hot summer day out in the back yard when Mom and Winnie decided to try the raft my older brother and I had made. They both ended up falling in the creek.

I grew up in the Depression. A large number of tramps riding the rods came to our acreage in the Okanagan, and one of them stayed as a handyman for a couple of years. Mr. Wilson was a major influence on me. When I was three years old we used to sit in the furnace room, where he would tell me about the world and its troubles. He taught me to sing songs and spell and read from the old Family Herald. He finally moved on. To me he was a sort of Huckleberry Finn folk hero, but I guess he was a traveller.

We had a couple of people coming and going in our house. My mother's maiden aunt, Elizabeth Russell -- Lizzy -- was always around. Her family had come out of the coal mines in Scotland and she used to tell me stories about the Old Country. She would sing me a little rhyme: "Billy Bennett/Going to the Senate." But I remember her in particular because she was outspoken, and when she got mad at us she'd get us down and hit us with her cane.

My mother's father stayed with us for long periods. We called him Bumpy, but he was such a tough old bird we should have called him Rocky. He and I didn't get along from about the time when I was born. His idea of discipline was to give you a kick in the pants when you didn't see it coming. He was an old soccer player, and he practised on me all my childhood. My grandfather was completely undiplomatic about the way he spoke about other people, other religions. So one of my sports, when we were out for a family drive and he'd say something outrageous, was to bait him by saying, "My dad says you shouldn't say that don't you Dad?" It must have been terrible for my poor dad. If I baited my grandfather when we were alone, he would chase me. I used to be a pretty fair runner and I got it all from running away from my grandfather. My family says some of my most unpleasant traits -- like my stubbornness --also came from him.

My relationship with my mother was just the quiet understanding of friends. She was a big woman then, bigger and I think physically stronger than my father. No matter what time we came in, she'd always be waiting for us. She was the one who got us off to school. And she had to do the disciplining. My father spanked me six times in my life. I remember every one. When he hit you, you didn't forget it.

In those early days, my brother, Russell, and I were never enemies but never close. R.J. is older than me, and it wasn't until we went into business together after high school, openning a home furnishing store, that we became so close we could finish each other's sentences. I was more influenced then by my sister, Anita, who was an incredible reader. She was four grades ahead of me and she would go to the library, read the books as soon as we got home, and then exchange them -- so I began reading at a much higher level.

My ambition was to be a superior athlete, which I'm not. I made the starting lineup on the basketball team because I worked the hardest. I was too competitive. I still like to win and I'm still competitive, but I'm just a shadow of my former self.

I also liked to win arguments with my dad. We had the capacity to infuriate and love each other at the same time. We both wanted to win every argument and have the last word. He taught me to test my own opinions, and boy, when I was wrong, I felt it.

I was probably the most rebellious and strong-willed one in my family. I once asked my dad how he put up with me and he said, "A wise father doesn't see everything." He would have driven me away if he had told me what to do.

He used that same reverse psychology in getting me into politics. I think he always felt I would get involved. There was a lot of speculation that my dad was going to retire in 1966. I was all prepared to run in his place, but there was no vacancy. When he did retire and I finally decided to run for the B.C. Legislature in his Kelowna riding in 1973, the last one I told was my father.

Copyright 2010 Andrew Bennett