The Papyrus Ipuwer states: "the earth turned upside down" and "the land turns round (over) like a potter's wheel." End of this line 8 and beginning line 9. Right to left.
Graphic 1 from Guide to Velikovsky's Sources Graphic 2 from Ohr Somayach, Jerusalem.
Some have interpreted "the land was turned upside down" to signify social unrest. However, the literal meaning may be what was intended. And PAPYRUS 9:11 "The land is not light". May very well refer to the ninth plague of Exodus, the three days of darkness February 14, 1281 BC because the rest of the papyrus corresponds to the Exodus. See The Papyrus Ipuwer. PAPYRUS 2:5-6 "Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere." 7:21 "...there is blood throughout all the land of Egypt." - identifies this papyrus with the 10 plagues of the Exodus. PAPYRUS 2:8 "Forsooth, the land turns round like a potter's wheel." "I show thee the land upside down; it happened that which never had happened".
Papyrus 1116b recto, publiched by Gardiner, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 1914
- may refer to the three days of darkness where the sun moved 540° or more likely 7 X 180° with earth's rotation over the Pacific to keep Egypt in darkness for 3 X 24 hours. Perhaps the three days darkness were from the new moon February 14, 1281 BC. Thus the Egyptians would see all the stars of the night sky appear, disappear and reapper and thus feel like the potter's wheel if they could see the stars in the darkness that could be felt.
The sun moving 3 X 360deg; east to stand still on the opposite side of earth to Egypt for three days of darkness. 3 X 24 hours. Then if earth was in a reverse orbit before, it would flow out of the reverse orbit.
"From yi-mao (day 52) to early next morning there was fog, then three flames ate the sun, big stars were seen."
A total solar eclipse passed through Yin March 4, 1250 BC on day 53 not day 52. Neither is this the correct day. The total solar eclipse June 5, 1302 BC, was the following day, Day 53 not day 52. Neither can this be the correct day.
From Xueshun Liu:
"Now, let's turn to eclipses. First, "Three flames ate (time word) the sun, and a great star was seen" in your email quoted below and "The first record of a solar prominence has been found in a tortoise shell inscription, which describes "three suddenly bursting fires eating a chunk of the sun", which appears on the web site http://www.china.org.cn/e-gudai/6.htm cited in your email yesterday, refer to the same inscription. It is not considered a record of solar eclipse by experts in early Chinese astronomy and early Chinese history.
When I was a Ph.D student in China and in UBC, my advisors include scholars at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, which is the most prestigious academic institution in China, Prof. Keightley at UC Berkely, Prof. Takashima at UBC, and Prof. Pankenier at Lehigh University. I also have friends at Chinese Academy of Sciences. All these scholars do not think that inscription is a record of eclipse."
Thus this record "three flames ate the sun" on day 53, if not the eclipse of March 4, 1250 BC, may be a description of the three days of darkness, day 53 of cycle 60, February 14, 1281 BC, the ninth plague of Exodus. Years later day 53 of cycle 60 was an omen for the first day of the fourth lunar month when Wu became emperor, May 19, 1173 BC.
Moreover, in September at midnight the handle of the Big Dipper normally points down. Likewise, if the sun moved to the otherside of the earth in February/March, the Big Dipper would point down at midnight instead of up. Thus the world would seem to be upside down.
Isaiah 24:1 "Behold, the LORD maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof."
24:4 "The earth dries up and withers, the world languishes and fades away; heaven fades away together with the earth."
24:7 "the new wine dries up, the oil decays, all the merry makers groan."
Dead Sea Scrolls Bible
A climate change in the form of a drought is something to look for in a reverse orbit and we find it here. "heaven fades away" may refer to the stars of the night sky fading away in the sun as the sun moved 180°. The sun moved up or down after moving the 180° to keep earth in the same season and earth and the planets tilted their orbits around the sun. For many reasons they would think earth had "turned upside down". After all, the sun was 180° away in the summer constellation when it was winter.
Also with earth in a reverse orbit stars would progress in reverse, 1° west to east instead of east to west each night, as earth orbited the sun in reverse.
Acts 17:6 "And when they found them not, they drew Jason and certain brethren unto the rulers of the city, crying, These that have turned the world upside down are come hither also;"
The word for upside down can be the word for revolution or cause for revolution. Such as in the Exodus. Nevertheless a literal translation is possible.
"The sun - it has come to pass it riseth not. The winter is come (instead of) as summer, the months are reversed, and the hours disordered."
Papyrus Anastasi IV
The 120 day winter season ended March 20, 1281 BC, Julian in the fixed to the seasons Egyptian calendar. Then the summer season started. The Exodus was March 30, 1281 BC. Thus this three days of darkness must have happened one month and fourteen days before, perhaps February 14, 1281 BC. They would see the stars from the other half of heaven, the winter night sky. They would be cold in the darkness. They would see the zodiac pass in reverse with earth in a reverse orbit. After three days, 3 X 24 hours, of darkness the hours of the day would seem very disordered. The Big Dipper would point down at midnight instead of up in spring. Thus this is rather what seemed upside down. Earth was untouched. Sirius would not appear at new years July 16. This would also see the days disordered.
You can read the full account of the Papyrus Ipuwer at Admonitions of Ipuwer.
On The Heavens Book II 285b14:
"Of the poles the one that appears above us is on the lower part, the one invisible to us is on the upper. For we call the 'right' of each thing the part from which the beginning of its local movement derives; now, the starting-point of the revolution of the heavens is the part from which the stars rise, so that this will be the right, and where they set is the left. If, then, it begins from the right and rotates to the right, the invisible pole must be the upper, since, if it is the invisible one, the movement will be to the left, which we deny. Therefore it is clear that the invisible pole is the upper.
Those who live on there are in the upper hemisphere and on the right, whereas we are in the lower hemisphere and on the left, which is just the opposite of what the Pythagoreans say; for they put us above and in the right-hand part, but those there below and in the left hand part. Just the opposite, however, turns out to be the case." Perhaps this was a description of a reverse orbit. The stars appearing later each evening in the east. That is, the stars moving west to east as the year progressed, earth still rotating east to west as normal. "the side from which the stars rise" is heaven's right, "and where they set...its left."
Worlds in Collision
"violent shakings of the revolutions of the Soul, a total blocking of the course of the same, shaking of the course of the other, which produced all manner of twistings, and caused in their circles fractures and disruptures of every possible kind, with the result that, as they barely held together one with another, they moved indeed but more irrationally, being at one time reversed, at another oblique, and again upside down."
Cf. Bury's comments to Timaeus, notes, pp.72,80.
"I show thee the land upside down; it happened which never had happened."
Ermitage Papyrus in Leningrad, pp.28-29; Gardiner, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, I (1914); Cambridge Ancient History, I, 346.
The Magical Papyrus Harris: "the south becomes north, and earth turns over."
H.O. Lange, "Der Magische Papyrus Harris," K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab (1927), p.58.
Seneca's play Thyestes depicts earth turning over: "Helius, already in mid career, wrested his chariot about and turned his horses' heads towards the dawn." "The zodiac's falling." Must mean earth flowed into a reverse orbit of the sun. How could they come up with the notion of a falling zodiac if they did not actually experience it? "no more shall the stars mark off summer and autumn". If the sun moved 180° March 21 or September 21, (March 30 in 1281 BC) on the spring or autumn equinox, the September night sky would be a March night sky and vice versa. If at any other time the sun also moved up or down to keep earth in the same season. Then the seasons must also shift up the zodiac. Earth rotates on a 23° tilt / , the sun moved up or down at the same inclination to this 23° tilt to earth as it had just before moving. "the Wain (Ursa Major), which was never washed by the sea, the swathing whirlpool shall engulf." This seems to be an example of a pole shift to keep earth in the same season. However, in a reverse orbit Ursa Major would appear at night in a different season at a different time. Thus this different time and different season may be what was being described. Thus, a sun miracle in winter when Ursa Major, the Big Dipper, pointed straight up at midnight would mean the next night Ursa Major, the Big Dipper, would point straight down. Then some of Ursa Major would drop below the Horizon. The same amount of Ursa Major that normally drops below the horizon. Earth did not shift on its axis. Only the night season of winter did not normally see Ursa Major drop below the horizon. "Into the universal deluge will the Wain descend, which never touched the sea before; the Snake, like a meandering river sliding Between the Bears; and the great Dragon's smaller neighbour, the freezing Cynosura" The sun must move up or down shifting earth's reverse orbit and the zodiacal seasons through the stars. Likewise the The Gilgamesh Epic Tablet VI, the theme of the celestial ceiling of Senmut's tomb, describe the same zodiac shift.
Seneca's conclusion: "Are we alone of mankind deemed worthy of being overwhelmed by an unhinged universe? Is it upon us the last day has come?" They thought the zodiac was fixed, was hinged in space. They thought it was the end of the world. Wouldn't you?
The Magical Papyrus Harris:
"the south becomes north, and the Earth turns over."
The Dendera Zodiac is upside down and progresses in reverse seems to represent earth upside down. However, what is reoriented is the zodiac. The spring sun is depicted in Leo which suggests the sun moved 180° in spring or fall. Likewise the sun in a reverse zodiac appears to rise in the east rather than from the west. However, east and west are reversed: "The first chart startled the investigators because
in it west and east are reversed...The zodiac and the heavenly bodies, including Phaethon, rotate anti-clockwise on this diagram as the day advances."
In a reverse orbit the spring night sky and fall night sky are reversed not the constellations of east and west. If the sun moved 180° in December or June the sun must move up or down 23° to keep earth in the same season. Then the constellation that had been in the north at night would now point south in the zodiac, to the south constellation. Spring is in the east according to ancient Chinese writings. This could only be in a reverse orbit. This is easy to picture. Normally Spring is in the west in the zodiac. If the sun moved to the other side of the earth Spring would be in the east and the zodiac progress in reverse.
"But the vernal mansions go to the west and the autumnal ones to the east, reversing the previous directions of these two seasons, and in opposition to the prevailing notion of the Chinese that the spring belongs to the east, etc."The Chinese Classics, Volume III p.94
Yao's zodiac from 2300 BC. Thus you see Scorpius in the east when the sun is in Scorpio in autumn in September, 2300 BC. For spring to be in the east, the sun must move to the other side of the earth, and earth flow into a reverse orbit of the sun.
Effectively earth would seem "upside down" even though its axis pointed to the same pole star in the northern hemisphere. Then west and east in the zodiac would be reversed. Some have interpreted the sun being depicted in Leo in spring. The sun was last in Leo on the vernal equinox 10,000 years ago. This is the stars would mark the seasons the same as if earth's axis pointed in backwards precession to its 10,000 BC star Vega. However, earth did not shift. Only the sun shifted up the zodiac. The lion like Sphinx faces east where the sun rises on the spring equinox. The lion shape may depict the sun then being in Leo on the vernal equinox. A possibility is the sun moved 180° from Taurus to Scorpius. Then a few days later on the vernal equinox Leo would rise just before the sun. The sun progressing in reverse against the zodiac as earth flowed into a reverse orbit of the sun. Or the sun may have moved 180° from or to Cancer from or to Sagittarius as well to fit the diagram. Depicted in a nearby zodiac sculpture from the grand temple the rising sun is in Cancer. The severed leg of the bull is depicted in the center of this Dendera Zodiac. This may signify the sun moving 180° other than on the equinoxes and earth shifting on it axis to keep in the same season and pointing to a new pole star, thus the leg severed from the bull of the north pole. "Horus had chopped off one leg of the bull and transferred it to another part of the sky where it could be properly guarded and prevented from ever again running amok." When earth flowed into a reverse orbit the night stars were where the noon sun had been. Moreover, the constellations would appear from the west through the year instead of disappering in the west as the year progresses in our normal orbit.
"In Hwang-te's 50th year, in autumn, in the 7th month, on the day Kang-shin [57th of cycle], phoenixes, male and female arrived."
This might be about day 57 of cycle 60, Sunday, October 8, 2607 BC, perhaps when Abraham was born.
"In his (emperor Yao's) 70th year (January 2247 BC), in the spring, in the first month..phoenixes appeared.."
This may be about January 2247 BC and the angels of God carried the sun to the other side of the earth in Joseph's 70th year.
"In his (emperor Ching's) 18th year, 1144 BC, in the spring, in the 1st month..Phoenixes made their appearance.."
Phoenixes in the Chinese spring signify a sun miracle between January and March.
Wu from 1174 BC 12 years not six to 1162 BC, then emperor Ching's 18th year in 1144 BC, when was a sun miracle. A long day for Jephthah about 100 years after Moses conquered Heshbon (not 300 years), 1242 BC to 1144 BC, could give Jephthah the victory when God answered his vow.
It was a common belief in the Mediterranean that the world turned over.
Plato also wrote of this: "For when the world turned towards the present cycle of generation.." That east and west are reversed in the Denderah Zodiac may mean the sun had moved from Spring in the west to Spring in the east. There were sun miracles recorded almost every century before Christ. There was one indicated by the Chinese because of Jupiter's reverse motion in 103 BC about the time the Denderah Zodiac was made. Also Senmuth's astronomical ceiling show earth's cardinal points reversed, that is, a reverse zodiac. There the bull of the pole star is slain. That is, there is depicted zodiac shift. Documents from the Harris, Ipuwer, and Hermatige papyri also depict a zodiac shift.
Horus is spearing the Bull in Ursa Major where the pole star is. What may be being depicted is the sun moving 180° and earth flowing into a reverse orbit of the sun. Thus a zodiac shift when the Bull of Heaven, the pole constellation was slain. Thus the handle of the Big dipper would point up instead of down that night.
A. Pogo suggested this was a horoscope commemorating the appearing of Sirius in the Great Year July 16, 2737 BC. Perhaps he believed the figure with the spear was Orion and the bull Taurus. However, the bull is definitely the bull of the north pole star, the Big Dipper. The pole star was imagined to be at the hairy tip of the Bull's tail, the Big Dipper rather than Taurus.
Most probably earth did not shift on its axis and did not turn upside down either. What is witnessed probably is simply the sun moving slightly up or down after moving 180° to keep earth in the same season and earth flowing into a reverse orbit of the sun. The zodiac would suddenly shift six constellations and progress in reverse. Then the Big Dipper would seem to be upside down. Earth in a reverse orbit would be alarming enough.
See Joshua's Long Day
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