The Sothis Calendar - Talk given to the Kelowna Chapter of the RASC January 21, 2003, with corrections.

The updated version is at sothis2.html

www.biblemysteries.com/lectures/egypt.htm "For the fixing in time of the {Egyptian Middle Kingdom} and the periods preceding it, the key date is the seventh year of the reign of King Sesostris III of the Twelfth Dynasty. In this year, a helical rising of the star Sothis (our Sirius) was recorded on 16. VIII of the 365-day civil calendar, a fact which, thanks to the regular displacement of this calendar, in relation to the true astronomical year, allows the year in question to be placed between 1876 and 1864 BC, with every probability favoring 1872 BC."
-- 2777 - 1872 = 905; 905/4 = 226.25 days backwards from July 16 Julian. Egyptian months were 30 days, with 5 days a year added at the end. 7 X 30 + 16 days = 16th of the eighth month and the appearing of Sirius just before dawn. The new year December 2, 1872 BC. The date of the appearing of Sirius varies one day because Sirius is a binary star of a 50.9 year orbit of 15 arc seconds.

Here is the statement. It is part of a papyrus inscription found at Kahun, Egypt, and was written to a priest:
"You ought to know that the rising of Sothis takes place on the 16th of the 8th month. Announce it to the priests of the town of Sekhem-Usertasen and of Anubis on the mountain and of Suchos . . And have this letter filed in the temple records."

"most scholars calibrate Old Testament events and the history of other ancient cultures by Egyptian dates"

The first is provided by papyrus fragments "found at el-Lahun, dated to year 7 of an unnamed pharaoh, but reasonably attributed to Senusret III on paleographic grounds. This document does not give the beginning of a Sothic cycle, but a calendar date for the rising of Sirius, which can be retrocalculated as 1872 BC if the sighting of Sirius was made in the Memphis-Lahun region. If, however, the sighting was made at the lower latitude of Elephantine, as Rolf Krauss has recently advocated, the date would be reduced to 1830 BC."

The only other Sothic date comes from the Ebers Papyrus for year 9 of Amenhotep I. There is a problem with this one, though, since while the "emergence of Sothis" is referred to in the text, no calendar day is specified. Thanks to the Roman historian Censorinus, we know that the civil New Year's Day and the heliacal rising of Sothis coincided in 139 AD.

According to the famed Egyptologist J. H. Breasted, the earliest date known in the Egyptian Sothis calendar corresponds to July 16 4236 BC. The earliest the Egyptians could see Sirius is July 14 judging by how far above the horizon Sirius would be. They probably saw Sirius a day or two later. The Egyptians simply had 365 days a year and let their calendar back up one day ever four years. When the calendar had backed up full circle, Sirius first appeared before dawn and it was July 16 again 2777 BC. 365/4 = 1460 Egyptian years, 1459 total years. Sirius first appeared before dawn on the next Sothis cycle July 17 1320 BC. 2777 BC - 1320 BC = 1457 years, 1458 Egyptian years because the 360° backed up calendar is one Egyptian year. The Nile River began to flood at the time of the July 16 Julian date according to measurements taken in the early 1900's before the Aswan dam. Then the appearing of Sirius before dawn was a signal for the Egyptians to head for higher ground.

Genesis 5:1 "This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;
2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.
3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:
4 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters:
5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.
6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos:
7 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters:
8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died.
9 And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan:
10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters:
11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died.
12 And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel:
13 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters:
14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.
15 And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared:
16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters:
17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died.
18 And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:
19 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:
20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died.
21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah:
22 And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:
23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years:
24 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.
25 And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech:
26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters:
27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.
28 And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son:
29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed.
30 And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters:
31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died.
32 And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth."

From the Septuagint:

Genesis 5:1 "This is the genealogy of man the day in which God made Adam; in the image of God he made him:
2 male and female he made them, and blessed them; and he called his name Adam, in the day in which he made them.
3 And Adam lived two hundred and thirty days, and begot a son after his own form, and after his own image, and he called his name Seth.
4 And the days of Adam which he lived after his begetting Seth, were seven hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters.
5 And all the days of Adam which he lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.
6 Now Seth lived two hundred and five years, and begot Enos.
7 And Seth lived after his begetting Enos, seven hundred and seven years, and he begat sons and daughters.
8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.
9 And Enos lived an hundred and niney years, and begot Cainan.
10 And Enos lived after his begetting Cainan, seven hundred and fifteen years, and he begot sons and daughters.
11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years, and he died.
12 And Cainan lived an hundred and seventy years, and he begot Maleleel.
13 And Cainan lived after his begetting Maleleel, seven hundred and forty years, and he begot sons and daughters.
14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and and ten years, and he died.
15 And Maleleel lived and hundred and sixty and five years, and he begot Jared.
16 And Maleleel lived after his begetting Jared, seven hundred and thirty years, and he begot sons and daughters.
17 And all the days of Maleleel were eight hundred and ninety and five years, and he died.
18 And Jared lived an hundred and sixty and two years, and begot Enoch:
19 and Jared lived after his begetting Enoch, eight hundred years, and be begot sons and daughters.
20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty and two years, and he died.
21 And Enoch lived an hundred and and sixty and five years and begat Mathusala.
22 And Enoch was well-pleasing to God after his begetting Mathusala, two hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters.
23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty and five years.
24 Enoch was well-pleasing to God, and was not found, because God translated him.
25 And Mathusala lived and hundred and sixty and seven years, and begot Lamech.
26 And Mathusala lived after his begetting Lamech eight hundred and two years, and begot sons and daughters.
27 And all the days of Mathusala which he lived, were nine hundred and sixty and nine years, and he died.
28 And Lamech lived an hundred and eighty and eight years, and begot a son.
29 And he called his name Noe, saying, This one will cause us to cease from our works, and from the toils of our hands, and from the earth, which the Lord God has cursed.
30 And Lamech lived after his begetting Noe, five hundred and sixty and five years, and he died.

I am not the first to suggest these are Sothis dates, nor the first to suggest an earlier Sothis cycle from about 5695 BC. See Egyptian Science. Sirius rose at 4AM about July 16 5695 BC. This compared to the 4236 BC to 1320 BC period when Sirius first appeared before dawn also on July 16. The Sothis calendar worked exactly because of the affect of precession working with the 365.2422 day year. In 1000 years that is 365242 days, 8 days less than 365250. Thus the sothis calendar falls behind the tropical calendar one day every 125 years, yet Sirius still first just appeared before the sun July 16. The Egyptians may have attempted a Sothis calendar before 4236 BC in about 5695 BC. However, the calendar may not have backed up to the first appearing of Sirius July 16 4236 BC in exactly 1460 years.
Sirius still first appeared before dawn 4AM going back as far as July 16 4712 BC the furthest back my astronomy program goes.

In the Garden of Paradise, beneath the Tree of Knowledge, bloomed a rose bush. Here, in the first rose, a bird was born. His flight was like the flashing of light, his plumage was beauteous, and his song ravishing. But when Eve plucked the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, when she and Adam were driven from Paradise, there fell from the flaming sword of the cherub a spark into the nest of the bird, which blazed up forthwith. The bird perished in the flames; but from the red egg in the nest there fluttered aloft a new one- the one solitary Phoenix bird. The fable tells that he dwells in Arabia, and that every hundred years, he burns himself to death in his nest; but each time a new Phoenix, the only one in the world, rises up from the red egg.

If the fall of Adam and Eve was marked by a sun miracle, the sun miracle may have been about 4500 BC. See From Adam. Genesis 5 may describe an earlier Sothis cycle from about 5700 BC. Adam was born in year 800, perhaps Sothis year 800. However, 800 may represent the duodecimal system, a 12 base number system instead of our 10 base number system. Thus 800 may be 8 X 12 X 12. Languages in the Nigerian Middle Belt such as Janji, Kahugu, the Nimbia dialect of Gwandara, Mahl language of Minicoy and the Chepang language of Nepal are known to use duodecimal numerals. This could explain seven generations from Adam - if generations were 85 years as is consistent with the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, this could be so. Enoch was in Sothis year 300 to Sothis year 365. Likewise counting the ages back from Enoch in 300 Sothis, 3936 BC: Jared 162 + Mahalaleel 65 + Cainan 70 + Enos 90 + Seth 105 + Adam 130 = 4558 BC = Adam's birth. Thus Adam's birth must be 4548 BC 144 + 4400 years before Christ was born in 4 BC. Thus perhaps an extra 10 years was added to the generations from Adam.

4548 BC Adam born 144 + 4400 before Jesus' birth in 4 BC
4418 BC Seth
4312 BC Enos 1800 years to when Abraham went to offer up Isaac in 2512 BC. 
             144 + 4200 years to Jesus' crucifixion in 33 AD.
4222 BC Cainan
4152 BC Mahalaleel
4088 BC Jared 1800 years to the sun miracle in 2287 BC when Joseph was 100
3936 BC Enoch Sothis year 300 from 4236 BC

Adam at 1152 (8 X 12 X 12) years from the beginning of the first sothis cycle about 5696 BC is 4544 BC. Probably the Sothis cycle began rather July 15 meaning there was one more day, four more years back from 5696 BC to 5700 BC. Meaning Adam must have been born exactly 144 + 4400 years before the birth of Christ. God reversed the fall of Adam with the birth of Christ. 10 X 12 X 12 duodecimal years is 1440 years just 20 short of a sothis cycle of about 1460 years. And is 5 days short, 5 X 4 = 20, equaling 360 days. This is a perfect fit, for the Egyptian Sothis calendar has 360 days with 5 days left over. Also the three seasons of 120 days would be written in duodecimal A0 days, 10 is A, 11 is B, and 12 is 10. They had 12 weeks of 10 days to a season.
Genesis 5:31 "And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died."
From the birth of Adam perhaps 4548 BC to his death 130 years after, 4418 BC, less 777 years is the Sothis year 595. Thus Lamech may have lived 777 years after the generation of Adam, after the birth of Seth, Genesis 6:30,31. Then Adam must have been born in 4548 BC and the Sothis cycle began July 17 5700 BC and ended an additional day later July 16 4236 BC, a 1464 year period. Then Adam's birth lines up with Jesus' birth and Eden with Jesus' doctrine. Then from the beginning from Adam marriage was for life as Jesus said:

Matthew 19:8 "He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.
9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.
"

Methusaleh lived to year 969, noteable because it is the biggest number and is 12,000 lunar months to the day. Perhaps counting from an event 144 years before Adam's birth, duodecimal Sothis year 700, 4692 BC. Then Methusaleh may have died in 3723 BC and been born 187 years earlier in 3910 BC when Enoch was 26. There may be 10 years unaccounted for. Then perhaps Methuselah was born in 3900 when Enoch was 36, the age Jesus was when he would be resurrected then Methuselah would be 29 when Enoch was translated. Perhaps we can use it for ages after Adam, not necessarily Methusaleh's age: 4548 BC - 130 - 969 = 3448 BC, 144 + 3300 years before Jesus's birth in 4 BC. Noah lived 350 years from 3636 BC to 950 Sothis. Then Lamech would be about 38 when Noah was born, perhaps 3786 BC, if Noah lived 500 years to 3286 BC. 1000 years later Joseph was 100 in 2287 BC when there was a sun miracle recorded in China, and 1400 years from Noah's birth to Joseph's birth. And Lamech would have lived 144 years after Noah's birth. Lamech may have died 777 years after 4418 BC in Sothis year 595, 3642 BC. Lemech the son of Cain, the sixth from Adam, said if Cain be avenged 7 fold, then Lemech 77 fold. Thus the parallel with Lamech and the 777 years from the birth of Seth, the seed God had appointed in place of Abel whom Cain slew Genesis 4. The Bible states that Noah lived 350 years after the flood. If Noah lived to Sothis year 950, 350 more years after the flood, to 3286 BC, he must have lived to about 500 years.

Genesis 5:32 "And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth."
Adam's brith 4548 BC -130 -969 = 3448 BC, 144 + 3300 years before the birth of Christ. 3448 BC - 969 = 2479 BC when Esau and Jacob were born when Isaac was 69.
Then there was the 1069 year period of the Sojourn from 2348 BC to the Exodus in 1279 BC.

The Egyptians also kept a lunar calendar:
Genesis 7:10 "And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days."

Genesis 8:13 "And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.
14 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
Genesis 7:6 "And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth."

Perhaps refers to the 600th year of the Sothis period starting July 16 4236 BC, then the 600th year to 3637 BC. The seven day week was passed on to us from that time without interruption. So the new year had backed up 600/4 days, 150 days, February 16, the new year, the 600th Egyptian year from July 16, 4236 BC. The calendar had backed up 150 days from July 16 to the new year February 16. 47 days after the new year 3637 BC is April 10. The new moon February 23 3637 began this Sothis year and this lunar year. The new moon March 23 3637 BC then would end the first month. Counting from the moon's first visibility at sunset the 17th day of the second lunar month is April 12 a Saturday.
Genesis 8:14 "In the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried."
That next year, 3636 BC, the first lunar month began February 12, the second March 11. The earth was dried Sunday, April 12, 3636 BC exactly one year later.

Genesis 11:10 "These are the generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood:
11 And Shem lived after he begat Arphaxad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.
12 And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah:
13 And Arphaxad lived after he begat Salah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters.
14 And Salah lived thirty years, and begat Eber:
15 And Salah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters.
16 And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg:
17 And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters.
18 And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu:
19 And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters.
20 And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug:
21 And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters.
22 And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor:
23 And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.
24 And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah:
25 And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters.
26 And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran.
27 Now these are the generations of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot.
28 And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.
29 And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah.
30 But Sarai was barren; she had no child.
31 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there.
32 And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran."

The Septuagint
Genesis 11:10 "And these are the generations of Sem: and Sem was a hundred years old when he begot Arphaxad, the second year after the flood.
11 And Sem lived, after he had begotten Arphaxad, five hundred years and begot sons and daughters, and died.
12 And Arphaxad lived a hundred and thirty-five years, and begot Cainan.
13 And Arphaxad lived after he had begotten Cainan, four hundred years, and begat sons and daughters, and died. And Cainan lived a hundred and thirty years and begot Sala; and Canaan lived after he had begotten Sala, three hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters, and died.
14 And Sala lived an hundred and thirty years, and begot Heber.
15 And Sala lived after he had begotten Heber, three hundred and thirty years and begot sons and daughters, and died.
16 And Heber lived an hundred and thirty-four years, and begot Phaleg.
17 And Heber lived after he had begotten Phaleg two hundred and seventy years, and begot sons and daughters, and died.
18 And Phaleg lived an hundred and thirty years, and begot Regau.
19 And Phaleg lived after he had begotten Ragau, two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters, and died.
20 And Ragau lived an hundred thirty and two years, and begot Seruch.
21 And Ragau lived after he had begotten Seruch, two hundred and seven years and begot sons and daughters, and died.
22 And Seruch lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot Nachor.
23 And Seruch lived after he had begotten Nachor, two hundred years, and begot sons and daughters, and died.
24 And Nachor lived a hundred and seventy-nine years, and begot Tharrha.
25 And Nachor lived after he had begotten Tharrha, an hundred and twenty-five years, and begot sons and daughters, and he died.
26 And Tharrha lived seventy years, and begot Abram, and Nachor and Arran.
32 And all the days of Tharrha in the land of Charrhan were two hundred and five years, and Tharrha died in Charrhan.

Perhaps Shem was born in the Sothis year 500 being 100 in the Sothis year 600, 3636 BC, the year of the flood.
Counting from the Septuagint from Arphaxad in the second year after the flood 3634 BC and leaving out Cainan which is not in the Hebrew:
12 And Arphaxad lived a hundred and thirty-five years, 3499 BC
14 And Sala lived an hundred and thirty years, and begot Heber. 3369 BC
16 And Heber lived an hundred and thirty-four years, and begot Phaleg. 3235 BC
18 And Phaleg lived an hundred and thirty years, and begot Regau. 3105 BC
20 And Ragau lived an hundred thirty and two years, and begot Seruch. 2973 BC
22 And Seruch lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot Nachor. 2843 BC = 2837 BC
24 And Nachor lived a hundred and seventy-nine years, and begot Tharrha. 2724 BC, 2718 BC
26 And Tharrha lived seventy years, and begot Abram, and Nachor and Arran. 2648 BC
32 And all the days of Tharrha in the land of Charrhan were two hundred and five years, and Tharrha died in Charrhan. 2572 BC

You can see if Nachor lived 119 years as in the Hebrew we have his birth at 2837 BC about the same as 2843 BC, a difference of 6 years can be found in rounding errors in the 130 year generations.
Terah lived to Sothis year 205 from 2777 BC, 2572 BC, 105 years old.
Abraham was 75 in 2572 BC, thus born in 2648 BC. Thus Terah was 70 when be begat Abraham.
And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years, year 205, 2572 BC. Sodom and Gomorrah reestablished their trade with Ebla as recorded in the Ebla tablets that have been dated to about 2500 BC. Thus Sodom was destroyed in 2549 BC after which there were no more records of Sodom and Gomorrah.
Genesis 13:10a "10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where,"
"Long Drought Climate records show rainfall dried up in the Middle East around 2200 B.C."
The Bible is both a genealogy and a chronology.

Genesis 36:9 "And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me."

When the sun stood still in China Yao sent an archer to shoot at the sun and upon the ninth arrow the sun moved and the people made Yao emperor 2357 BC.

There were seven years of plenty then seven years of famine. In the second year of famine:
Genesis 47:18 "When that year was ended, they came unto him the second year,"

The sojourn into Egypt may have begun April 3, 2348 BC in the second year of famine. Then the first year of plenty must have been 2357 BC when Joseph was made governor over Egypt possibly accompanied by the sun miracle of Yao March 31 2357 BC and possibly confirming the Chinese common chronology. Gilgamesh IV, 2300 BC, also writes of the 7 years of plenty and the bull of heaven being speared as depicted in Senmut's celestial ceiling. Jacob blessed Joseph's sons: Genesis 48:16b "and let them grow as fishes do increase in the midst of the earth." There was an abundance of fish in the Nile River 2300 BC when the constellation Pisces (fish) was named in Egypt. There are 700 duodecimal years, 1008, from the sun miracle in Joseph's 100th year 2287 BC to the Exodus out of Egypt in 1279 BC.

Exodus 12:2 "This month shall be the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you."
40 "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt."
The Hebrew word/letter Bet is thought to originally mean from instead of for. Thirty can also mean thirtieth. Then "was four hundred and thirty years." may have been intended to mean "from the four hundred and thirtieth year." perhaps of this Great Era July 16 2777 BC:



Acts 7:23 "And when he was full forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren the children of Israel." This must have been 1319 BC when Moses was 40 when the Sothis period ended and a new 1460 year Sothis period began. Thus he may have thought this new era was a sign to lead the children of Israel out of Egypt. Acts 7:30 "And when forty years were expired, there appeared to him (Moses) in the wilderness of mount Sina an angel of the Lord in a flame of fire in a bush." Moses in Egypt 40 years later was 80 at the time of the Exodus. Pharaoh must have drowned in the Red Sea. Pharaoh Merneptah must have died in this 1279 BC.
The 14th day from the old moon's last visibility 1279 BC was April 4, a Friday. The 14th day from the old moon's last visibility 2348 BC was April 3, a Friday.
Exodus 12:6a "And ye shall keep it up to the 14th day of the same month.."
The same day of the year - April 4 2348 BC is the same Egyptian day as April 3 1279 BC, the same 14th day of the lunar month and the same day of the week - Friday, and may be the "selfsame day" that Jacob entered Egypt, April 3 2348 BC. The same 104 days back from the appearing of Sirius July 16 2348 BC and 104 days from the appearing of Sirius July 17 1279 BC - to the Egyptians the selfsame day. "Unlike most people who used a lunar calendar, the Egyptians began their day with sunrise instead of sunset because they began their month, and consequently their day, by the disappearance of the old Moon just before dawn." The Israelites began their day at sunset and began their month on the first appearing of the new moon at sunset before going into Egypt and after leaving Egypt:

Genesis 1:5b "And the evening and the morning were the first day."

Psalm 81:3 "Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day."

So both the April 3 2348 BC and the April 4 1279 BC date appear Egyptian. The Israelites appear to have begun the day and the lunar month at evening of the Exodus.

Ramses II 52nd year was dated by the 28th day of the moon December 20 1228 BC = 20-XII-1228 B.C. (year 52 II prt 28). The fixed 30 day months began July 22 and Dec 20 began a new month on the 28th day of the moon. "Re raises the vault the first day in the second period of peret (prt). That must be 21st December" However, December 20 1304 BC is also the 28th day of the moon. (More accurately December 18 is the 28th day of the Egyptian moon and the beginning of the II peret) 1279 BC (Exodus) - 1203 BC (Merneptah drowned) = 76 year gap. Then 76 + 1279 BC = 1355 BC and Ramses II's 52nd year may be 1304 BC. Thus the pharaoh of the Exodus must be Merneptah and the Exodus be in 1279 BC when Merneptah drowned in the Reed Sea. Then this is also a Sothis date because the beginning of II peret is counted from 5 days after the Sothis day July 16. Ramses reigned 66 years. Thus the pharaoh of Exodus must be Merneptah who reigned 10 years:

Exodus 2:23 "And it came to pass in the process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.
24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.
25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them."

Judges 11:26 "While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the coasts of Arnon, three hundred years? Why therefore did ye not recover them within that time?"
Three may mean third, may mean to the third century, may mean to the third century of the second Sothis period beginning 1320 BC, the third century beginning 1120 BC. Or this is 300 doubled years to 1129 BC. Or rather this may be the third 50 year jubile beginning 1140 BC.

1 Kings 6:1 "And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD."

The Hebrew word for year, shanah, also means double. Then 480 doubled years is 240 years. 1279 - 240 = 1039 BC possibly Solomon's fourth year. The Pharaoh Psusennes I, 1040 BC, favoured his daughter just as this Pharaoh who gave Gezer as a present to his daughter - 1 Kings 9:16. Then the Exodus must have been April 4, 1279 BC.

Then you can see these Sirius dates are really serious dates!

s@sunnyokanagan.com Andrew Bennett

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